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childhood stressors

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By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Lucy R Betts, James Stiller
Centrality is an indicator of an individual's relative importance within a social group. Predictors of centrality in best friendship networks were examined in 146 children (70 boys and 76 girls, Mage  = 9.95). Children completed measures of social confidence, social desirability, friendship quality, school liking, and loneliness and nominated their best friends from within their class at two time points, 3 months apart. Multigroup path analysis revealed gender differences in the antecedents of centrality...
March 2014: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sarah Whittle, Meg Dennison, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman, Christos Pantelis, Nicholas B Allen
OBJECTIVE: The hippocampus and amygdala have received much attention with regard to the deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment. However, it is not known if and when these effects emerge during adolescence and whether comorbid psychopathology is more likely to explain these effects. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with hippocampal and amygdala development from early to midadolescence and whether the experience of psychopathology during this period mediated the relation...
September 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Michelle Kelly-Irving, Benoit Lepage, Dominique Dedieu, Rebecca Lacey, Noriko Cable, Melanie Bartley, David Blane, Pascale Grosclaude, Thierry Lang, Cyrille Delpierre
BACKGROUND: To analyse whether Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) are associated with an increased risk of cancer. METHODS: The National child development study (NCDS) is a prospective birth cohort study with data collected over 50 years. The NCDS included all live births during one week in 1958 (n=18558) in Great Britain. Self-reported cancer incidence was based on 444 participants reporting having had cancer at some point and 5694 reporting never having cancer...
August 19, 2013: BMC Public Health
Deborah A Askew, Philip J Schluter, Geoffrey K P Spurling, Chelsea J R Bond, Alex D H Brown
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and types of stressful events experienced by urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, and to explore the relationship between these experiences and the children's physical health and parental concerns about their behaviour and learning ability. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged ≤ 14 2013s presenting to an urban Indigenous primary health care service in Brisbane for annual child health checks between March 2007 and March 2010...
July 8, 2013: Medical Journal of Australia
Jeremy Arkes
This research examines whether family disruptions (i.e., divorces and separation) contribute to children's weight problems. The sample consists of 7299 observations for 2333 children, aged 5-14, over the 1986-2006 period, from a U.S. representative sample from the Child and Young Adult Survey accompanying the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The study uses individual-fixed-effects models in a longitudinal framework to compare children's BMI and weight problems before and after a disruption. Furthermore, besides doing a before-after comparison for children, the study also estimates the effects at various periods relative to the disruption in order to examine whether children are affected before the disruption and whether any effects change as time passes from the disruption, as some effects may be temporary or slow to develop...
June 14, 2013: Obesity
M De Venter, K Demyttenaere, R Bruffaerts
BACKGROUND: Traumatic childhood experiences are important societal problems and have far-reaching mental and somatic consequences. There is a considerable amount of literature concerning the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and anxiety, depression and substance abuse in adulthood. AIM: To integrate systematically all available research data on this relationship. METHOD: We studied the literature via PubMed and PsycINFO using the search terms ‘ACEs', ‘anxiety', ‘depression', ‘substance abuse', and ‘impact'...
2013: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Claudia Buss, Sonja Entringer, James M Swanson, Pathik D Wadhwa
During gestation, the fetal brain develops dramatically as structures and connections form, providing the foundation for all future development. The fetal environment plays a critical role in these early neural processes, for better or for worse. Scientists now know that exposure to maternal stress can sometimes have deleterious effects on the fetus, depending on the cause, timing, duration, and intensity of stress. Fortunately, postnatal interventions, such as a secure parent-infant bond and an enriched environment, can buffer the potential negative consequences...
March 2012: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Kristen M Abraham, Catherine H Stein
OBJECTIVE: Guided by a life course perspective, the present study examined whether aspects of the emerging adult-mother relationship, specifically affection, felt obligation, role reversal, and reciprocity, mediated the association between having a mother with mental illness and poorer psychological adjustment. METHOD: Emerging adults with mothers with mental illness (n = 52) and emerging adults without mothers with mental illness (n = 64) were recruited from institutes of higher education and responded to an online self-report questionnaire...
June 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Mary K Shenk, Kathrine Starkweather, Howard C Kress, Nurul Alam
This paper examines the effects of three different types of father absence on the timing of life history events among women in rural Bangladesh. Age at marriage and age at first birth are compared across women who experienced different father presence/absence conditions as children. Survival analyses show that daughters of fathers who divorced their mothers or deserted their families have consistently younger ages at marriage and first birth than other women. In contrast, daughters whose fathers were labor migrants have consistently older ages at marriage and first birth...
March 2013: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Ann H Maradiegue, Debra E Lyon, Melanie F Meyers
In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms...
June 2013: Nursing & Health Sciences
Katherine P Theall, Stacy S Drury, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff
The authors examined the impact of cumulative neighborhood risk of psychosocial stress on allostatic load (AL) among adolescents as a mechanism through which life stress, including neighborhood conditions, may affect health and health inequities. They conducted multilevel analyses, weighted for sampling and propensity score-matched, among adolescents aged 12-20 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Individuals (first level, n = 11,886) were nested within families/households (second level, n = 6,696) and then census tracts (third level, n = 2,191) for examination of the contextual effect of cumulative neighborhood risk environment on AL...
October 1, 2012: American Journal of Epidemiology
Chantelle N Hart, Alyssa Cairns, Elissa Jelalian
The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive update of epidemiologic studies that have assessed the association between sleep and obesity risk. Data suggest that short sleep is associated with an increased risk for being or becoming overweight/obese or having increased body fat. Late bedtimes are also a risk factor for overweight/obesity. Findings also suggest that changes in eating pathways may lead to increased body fat. Future experimental studies are needed to enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which sleep may play a role in the development and maintenance of childhood obesity...
June 2011: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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