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crit care

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36 papers 25 to 100 followers
Zhong-Qian Lu, Jian-Xia Lu, Yi-Jun Deng
Sepsis is a serious infection-related complication that, in causing significant inflammation, often leads to myocardial injury. Severe inflammation, including in sepsis, is sometimes treated with exogenous glucocorticoids (GCs). Here, to explore the potential effect of GCs to protect against myocardial injury, we created a model of sepsis in rats by performing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in 96 rats randomly divided into sham-operated control (N=32), untreated sepsis (CLP, N=32), and GC-treated sepsis (N=32) groups...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Tomer Avni, Adi Lador, Shaul Lev, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul, Alon Grossman
OBJECTIVE: International guidelines recommend dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor agents in septic shock. Phenylephrine, epinephrine, vasopressin and terlipressin are considered second-line agents. Our objective was to assess the evidence for the efficiency and safety of all vasopressors in septic shock. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched electronic database of MEDLINE, CENTRAL, LILACS and conference proceedings up to June 2014...
2015: PloS One
Vincent J Lempers, Roger J Brüggemann
The Information Age has revolutionized the ability of healthcare professionals (HCPs) to oversee a substantial body of clinically relevant information literally at one's fingertips. In the field of clinical pharmacology, this may be particularly useful for managing drug-drug interactions (DDIs). A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms of DDIs allows the HCP to predict such interactions and avoid those of greatest clinical significance. Specifically, successful treatment with antifungal agents is complicated by the high potential to interact with other concomitant medications...
February 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Serena F Carville, Robert Henderson, Huon Gray
Acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) results from complete obstruction to coronary artery blood flow accompanied by the appearance of ST-segment-elevation on the electrocardiogram. Emergency treatment is required to restore coronary perfusion, thereby limiting the extent of damage to the myocardium and the likelihood of early death or future heart failure. This concise guideline summarises key recommendations from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guideline on acute management of STEMI (CG167), of relevance to all healthcare professionals involved...
August 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Andrew D Shaw, Carol R Schermer, Dileep N Lobo, Sibyl H Munson, Victor Khangulov, David K Hayashida, John A Kellum
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous (IV) fluids may be associated with complications not often attributed to fluid type. Fluids with high chloride concentrations such as 0.9 % saline have been associated with adverse outcomes in surgery and critical care. Understanding the association between fluid type and outcomes in general hospitalized patients may inform selection of fluid type in clinical practice. We sought to determine if the type of IV fluid administered to patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with outcome...
September 12, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Lidia Dalfino, Filomena Puntillo, Maria Josephine Mura Ondok, Adriana Mosca, Rosa Monno, Sara Coppolecchia, Maria Luigia Spada, Francesco Bruno, Nicola Brienza
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with severe sepsis or septic shock may need relatively high colistin daily doses for efficacy against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant gram-negative rods. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) may represent a major dose-limiting adverse effect of colistin. We sought to determine AKI occurrence and to identify factors influencing AKI risk in severely ill patients receiving colistin according to a recently proposed dosing strategy. METHODS: A prospective, observational, cohort study involving patients with severe sepsis or septic shock who received colistin was performed...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Catherine L Hough, Ellen S Caldwell, Christopher E Cox, Ivor S Douglas, Jeremy M Kahn, Douglas B White, Eric J Seeley, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Derek C Angus, Shannon S Carson
OBJECTIVES: The existing risk prediction model for patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation is not applicable until after 21 days of mechanical ventilation. We sought to develop and validate a mortality prediction model for patients earlier in the ICU course using data from day 14 of mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Forty medical centers across the United States. PATIENTS: Adult patients receiving at least 14 days of mechanical ventilation...
November 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Barbara Haas, Lesley Gotlib Conn, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Damon Scales, Andre C Amaral, Niall D Ferguson, Avery B Nathens
OBJECTIVES: The intensivist-led model of ICU care requires surgical consultants and the ICU team to collaborate in the care of ICU patients and to communicate effectively across teams. We sought to characterize communication between intensivists and surgeons and to assess enablers and barriers of effective communication. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. An inductive data analysis approach was taken. SETTING: Seven intensivist-led ICUs in four academic hospitals...
October 2015: Critical Care Medicine
L Østergaard, A Granfeldt, N Secher, A Tietze, N K Iversen, M S Jensen, K K Andersen, K Nagenthiraja, P Gutiérrez-Lizardi, K Mouridsen, S N Jespersen, E K Tønnesen
Severe sepsis is defined by organ failure, often of the kidneys, heart, and brain. It has been proposed that inadequate delivery of oxygen, or insufficient extraction of oxygen in tissue, may explain organ failure. Despite adequate maintenance of systemic oxygen delivery in septic patients, their morbidity and mortality remain high. The assumption that tissue oxygenation can be preserved by maintaining its blood supply follows from physiological models that only apply to tissue with uniformly perfused capillaries...
November 2015: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Feng Tian, Xinying Wang, Xuejin Gao, Xiao Wan, Chao Wu, Li Zhang, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines support the use of enteral nutrition to improve clinical outcomes in critical illness; however, the optimal calorie and protein intake remains unclear. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively analyze randomised controlled trials with regard to clinical outcomes related to varying calorie and protein administration in critically ill adult patients. METHOD: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of initially different calorie and protein intake in critical illness...
April 20, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
James S Krinsley, Jean-Charles Preiser
INTRODUCTION: Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and increased glucose variability are independently associated with increased risk of death in critically ill adults. The relationship between time in targeted blood glucose range (TIR) and mortality is not well described and may be a factor that has confounded the results of the major interventional trials of intensive insulin therapy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data involving 3,297 patients with intensive care unit (ICU) lengths of stay (LOS) of ≥ 1...
April 20, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Beata Mickiewicz, Patrick Tam, Craig N Jenne, Caroline Leger, Josee Wong, Brent W Winston, Christopher Doig, Paul Kubes, Hans J Vogel
INTRODUCTION: Septic shock is a major life-threatening condition in critically ill patients and it is well known that early recognition of septic shock and expedient initiation of appropriate treatment improves patient outcome. Unfortunately, to date no single compound has shown sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be used as a routine biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, the identification of new diagnostic tools remains a priority for increasing the survival rate of ICU patients...
January 15, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jan J De Waele, Manu L N G Malbrain, Andrew W Kirkpatrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Scott T Micek, Richard G Wunderink, Marin H Kollef, Catherine Chen, Jordi Rello, Jean Chastre, Massimo Antonelli, Tobias Welte, Bernard Clair, Helmut Ostermann, Esther Calbo, Antoni Torres, Francesco Menichetti, Garrett E Schramm, Vandana Menon
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial pneumonia (Pa-NP) is associated with considerable morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, increased costs, and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with Pa-NP to determine 1) risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and 2) whether MDR increases the risk for hospital death. Twelve hospitals in 5 countries (United States, n = 3; France, n = 2; Germany, n = 2; Italy, n = 2; and Spain, n = 3) participated...
May 6, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jean-Louis Vincent, Paolo Pelosi, Rupert Pearse, Didier Payen, Azriel Perel, Andreas Hoeft, Stefano Romagnoli, V Marco Ranieri, Carole Ichai, Patrice Forget, Giorgio Della Rocca, Andrew Rhodes
A significant number of surgical patients are at risk of intra- or post-operative complications or both, which are associated with increased lengths of stay, costs, and mortality. Reducing these risks is important for the individual patient but also for health-care planners and managers. Insufficient tissue perfusion and cellular oxygenation due to hypovolemia, heart dysfunction or both is one of the leading causes of perioperative complications. Adequate perioperative management guided by effective and timely hemodynamic monitoring can help reduce the risk of complications and thus potentially improve outcomes...
May 8, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Steven R Vigna
We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before...
2014: International Journal of Inflammation
Randeep S Jawa, David H Young, Joseph C Stothert, Mahmoud N Kulaylat, James D Landmark
Transfusion associated-graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare complication of blood transfusion. It carries a very high mortality rate. Although the phenomenon has been well described in immunocompromised patients, this review focuses on the immunocompetent host. Cases of TA-GVHD continue to be reported following a variety of surgical procedures, especially cardiac procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Additional risk factors for TA-GVHD include blood component transfusion in populations with limited genetic diversity, the use of directed donations from family members, and the transfusion of fresh blood...
March 2015: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Stefan De Hert, Luc De Baerdemaeker
This review summarises the new insights into the physiology of perioperative fluid therapy and analyses recent studies of the safety of the use of HES solutions in the fluid management of critically ill patients. This analysis reveals a number of methodological issues in the three major studies that have initiated the recommendation of the European Medicine Agency to ban hydroxyethyl starches from clinical practice. It is concluded that, when used in the proper indication, and taking into account the recommended doses, hydroxyethyl starches continue to have a place in perioperative fluid management...
November 2014: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Robert G Hahn
The current trend in anaesthesia is to choose crystalloid over colloid fluids for volume replacement in the operating room. Outcome-oriented studies and kinetic analyses have recently provided more insight into how crystalloid infusions should be managed. These fluids have a much better short-term effect on the plasma volume than previously believed. Their efficiency (i.e. the plasma volume expansion divided by the infused volume) is 50-80% as long as an infusion continues, while this fraction increases to 100% when the arterial pressure has dropped...
November 2014: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Thomas Langer, Michele Ferrari, Luca Zazzeron, Luciano Gattinoni, Pietro Caironi
Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid...
November 2014: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
2014-12-20 20:07:36
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