Davide Capodanno, Dominick J Angiolillo
Daily administration of low-dose aspirin has proved to be beneficial in preventing recurrent cardiovascular events. However, the role of aspirin for primary prevention in patients with no overt cardiovascular disease is more controversial. In fact, in lower risk patients, the modest benefit in reducing serious vascular events can be offset by the increased risk of bleeding, including intracranial and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a substantially increased risk of both first and recurrent atherothrombotic events, which makes aspirin therapy of potential value in these subjects...
November 15, 2016: Circulation
Laurent Azoulay, Kristian B Filion, Robert W Platt, Matthew Dahl, Colin R Dormuth, Kristin K Clemens, Madeleine Durand, Nianping Hu, David N Juurlink, J Michael Paterson, Laura E Targownik, Tanvir C Turin, Pierre Ernst, Samy Suissa, Colin R Dormuth, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Gary F Teare, Patricia Caetano, Dan Chateau, David A Henry, J Michael Paterson, Jacques LeLorier, Adrian R Levy, Pierre Ernst, Robert W Platt, Ingrid S Sketris
Importance: The association between incretin-based drugs, such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists, and acute pancreatitis is controversial. Objective: To determine whether the use of incretin-based drugs, compared with the use of 2 or more other oral antidiabetic drugs, is associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large, international, multicenter, population-based cohort study was conducted using combined health records from 7 participating sites in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Abeer Anabtawi, John M Miles
Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its apparent robust effects in reducing cardiovascular risk. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that metformin reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, and more recent retrospective studies have shown an association between metformin and a reduction in stroke, atrial fibrillation and all-cause mortality. The mechanism(s) explaining these putative benefits are not clear but may involve decreased energy intake (with attendant weight loss), improvement in lipids, and lowering of blood pressure; a review of selected literature suggests that metformin lowers blood pressure when it is elevated, but not when it is normal...
May 23, 2016: Endocrine Practice
James J Chamberlain, Andrew S Rhinehart, Charles F Shaefer, Annie Neuman
DESCRIPTION: The American Diabetes Association (ADA) published the 2016 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (Standards) to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested parties with the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. METHODS: The ADA Professional Practice Committee performed a systematic search on MEDLINE to revise or clarify recommendations based on new evidence. The committee assigns the recommendations a rating of A, B, or C, depending on the quality of evidence...
April 19, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Sripal Bangalore, Robert Fakheri, Bora Toklu, Franz H Messerli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes with use of renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers compared with other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes. DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials databases for randomized trials of RAS blockers versus other antihypertensive agents in people with diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were death, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, heart failure, revascularization, and end stage renal disease...
February 11, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Ruisheng Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Diabetes Care
D C Klonoff, D M Schwartz
The objective of this article is to stratify interventions for diabetes according to their economic impact. We conducted a review of the literature to select articles that performed a cost-benefit analysis for 17 widely practiced interventions for diabetes. A scale for categorizing interventions according to their economic impact was defined. The 17 interventions were classified as follows: 1) clearly cost-saving, 2) clearly cost-effective, 3) possibly cost-effective, 4) non-cost-effective, or 5) unclear. Clearly cost-saving interventions included eye care and pre-conception care...
March 2000: Diabetes Care
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Diabetes Care
Mario Barbagallo, Ligia J Dominguez
Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium (Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulin and glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients...
August 25, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Gian Paolo Fadini, Angelo Avogaro, Luca Degli Esposti, Pierluigi Russo, Stefania Saragoni, Stefano Buda, Giuseppe Rosano, Sergio Pecorelli, Luca Pani
AIMS: Oral glucose-lowering medications are associated with excess risk of heart failure (HF). Given the absence of comparative data among drug classes, we performed a retrospective study in 32 Health Services of 16 Italian regions accounting for a population of 18 million individuals, to assess the association between HF risk and use of sulphonylureas, DPP-4i, and glitazones. METHODS AND RESULTS: We extracted data on patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated treatment with DPP-4i, thiazolidinediones, or sulphonylureas alone or in combination with metformin during an accrual time of 2 years...
September 21, 2015: European Heart Journal
Benjamin M Scirica, Deepak L Bhatt, Eugene Braunwald, P Gabriel Steg, Jaime Davidson, Boaz Hirshberg, Peter Ohman, Robert Frederich, Stephen D Wiviott, Elaine B Hoffman, Matthew A Cavender, Jacob A Udell, Nihar R Desai, Ofri Mosenzon, Darren K McGuire, Kausik K Ray, Lawrence A Leiter, Itamar Raz
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular safety and efficacy of many current antihyperglycemic agents, including saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of, or were at risk for, cardiovascular events to receive saxagliptin or placebo and followed them for a median of 2.1 years. Physicians were permitted to adjust other medications, including antihyperglycemic agents...
October 3, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Akira Tamura, Yoshiyuki Kawano, Toru Watanabe, Junichi Kadota
OBJECTIVE: We sought to clarify the association between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. METHODS: HbA1c levels were measured in 330 subjects who were suspected of having OSA and who underwent polysomnography. A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 308 subjects who had not been diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus. Patients with use of hypoglycemic agents were excluded. The 330 subjects were divided into three subgroups: 164 with normal glucose tolerance, 111 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 55 with diabetes mellitus (DM)...
September 2012: Sleep Medicine
Claire K Mulvey, Ann M McNeill, Cynthia J Girman, Timothy W Churchill, Karen Terembula, Jane F Ferguson, Rachana Shah, Nehal N Mehta, Atif N Qasim, Michael R Rickels, Muredach P Reilly
OBJECTIVE We evaluated relationships of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT)-derived measures of insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell function with indices of diabetes complications in a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes who are free of overt cardiovascular or renal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A subset of participants from the Penn Diabetes Heart Study (n = 672; mean age 59 ± 8 years; 67% male; 60% Caucasian) underwent a standard 2-h, 75-g OGTT. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the Matsuda Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI), and β-cell function was estimated using the Insulinogenic Index...
2014: Diabetes Care
María José Picón, Mora Murri, Araceli Muñoz, José Carlos Fernández-García, Ricardo Gomez-Huelgas, Francisco J Tinahones
OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C), alone or combined with the fasting glucose test, compared with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the reassessment of the carbohydrate metabolism status in postpartum women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated the status of carbohydrate metabolism by performing the OGTT and fasting glucose and A1C tests in 231 postpartum women with prior GDM 1 year after delivery...
August 2012: Diabetes Care
Louise Kelstrup, Tine D Clausen, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Torben Hansen, Jens J Holst, Peter Damm
CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jie Li, Hao Ma, Lixin Na, Shuo Jiang, Lin Lv, Gang Li, Wei Zhang, Guanqiong Na, Ying Li, Changhao Sun
CONTEXT: It is unclear why the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes, especially prediabetes, between diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) criteria, is substantially discordant. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effects of obesity on the agreement between HbA1c and OGTT for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes and identify the optimal HbA1c cutoff values in different body mass index (BMI) classifications. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In a population-based, cross-sectional study in Harbin, China, 4325 individuals aged 20-74 years without a prior diagnosed diabetes were involved in this study...
May 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Christine L Chan, Laura Pyle, Lindsey Newnes, Kristen J Nadeau, Philip S Zeitler, Megan M Kelsey
CONTEXT: The optimal screening test for diabetes and prediabetes in obese youth is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a better predictor of free-living glycemia as measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of youth 10-18 years old, body mass index (BMI) 85th percentile or greater, with diabetes risk factors...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jennifer Logue, Jeremy J Walker, Graham Leese, Robert Lindsay, John McKnight, Andrew Morris, Sam Philip, Sarah Wild, Naveed Sattar
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association of BMI with mortality in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using records of 106,640 patients in Scotland, we investigated the association between BMI recorded around the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for age and smoking status, with BMI 25 to <30 kg/m(2) as a referent group. Deaths within 2 years of BMI determination were excluded...
April 2013: Diabetes Care
Orison O Woolcott, Marilyn Ader, Richard N Bergman
Most of the literature related to high altitude medicine is devoted to the short-term effects of high-altitude exposure on human physiology. However, long-term effects of living at high altitudes may be more important in relation to human disease because more than 400 million people worldwide reside above 1500 m. Interestingly, individuals living at higher altitudes have a lower fasting glycemia and better glucose tolerance compared with those who live near sea level. There is also emerging evidence of the lower prevalence of both obesity and diabetes at higher altitudes...
April 2015: Endocrine Reviews
Claudia Schuette, Daniel Steffens, Marco Witkowski, Caroline Stellbaum, Peter Bobbert, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Ursula Rauch
BACKGROUND: Although antiplatelet therapy involving clopidogrel is a standard treatment for preventing cardiovascular events after coronary stent implantation, patients can display differential responses. Here, we assessed the effectiveness of clopidogrel on platelet function inhibition in subjects with and without type-2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease. In addition, we investigated the correlation between platelet function and routine clinical parameters. METHODS: A total of 64 patients with stable coronary heart disease were enrolled in the study...
February 3, 2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
2015-02-05 14:39:24
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