Álvaro López-Díaz, Manuel Murillo-Izquierdo, Elisa Moreno-Mellado
Ketamine therapy for treatment-resistant depression in European national health systems may only be considered after attempting all evidence-based antidepressant strategies outlined in clinical guidelines. This paper seeks to explain the ethical, regulatory and procedural framework for the off-label use of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression within a public healthcare system.Declaration of interestNone.
August 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry
Jeanne Talbot, Jennifer L. Phillips, Pierre Blier
A growing body of literature has shown the effectiveness of ketamine for treating chronic depression. How long the beneficial effects of repeated ketamine last once infusions are stopped, however, remains largely unknown. Understanding the challenges that ensue after ketamine cessation can help clinicians optimally guide patients who opt for ketamine treatment and minimize the associated risks. In this commentary, we discuss some unexpected data gathered from participants of a pilot study on the effects of adjunctive ketamine infusion for resistant depression...
November 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Fernanda S Correia-Melo, Gustavo C Leal, Flávia Vieira, Ana Paula Jesus-Nunes, Rodrigo P Mello, Guilherme Magnavita, Ana Teresa Caliman-Fontes, Mariana V F Echegaray, Igor D Bandeira, Samantha S Silva, Diogo E Cavalcanti, Lucas Araújo-de-Freitas, Luciana M Sarin, Marco A Tuena, Carolina Nakahira, Aline S Sampaio, José A Del-Porto, Gustavo Turecki, Colleen Loo, Acioly L T Lacerda, Lucas C Quarantini
BACKGROUND: Ketamine and its enantiomers have recently been highlighted as one of the most effective therapeutic options in refractory depression. However, racemic ketamine and esketamine have not been directly compared. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of esketamine compared to ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS: This is a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, bicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial, with two parallel groups...
March 1, 2020: Journal of Affective Disorders
Michael F Grunebaum, Hanga C Galfalvy, Tse-Hwei Choo, John G Keilp, Vivek K Moitra, Michelle S Parris, Julia E Marver, Ainsley K Burke, Matthew S Milak, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacotherapy to rapidly relieve suicidal ideation in depression may reduce suicide risk. Rapid reduction in suicidal thoughts after ketamine treatment has mostly been studied in patients with low levels of suicidal ideation. The authors tested the acute effect of adjunctive subanesthetic intravenous ketamine on clinically significant suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder. METHOD: In a randomized clinical trial, adults (N=80) with current major depressive disorder and a score ≥4 on the Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), of whom 54% (N=43) were taking antidepressant medication, were randomly assigned to receive ketamine or midazolam infusion...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Patricio Riva-Posse, Collin M Reiff, Johnathan A Edwards, Gregory P Job, Gail C Galendez, Steven J Garlow, Tammy C Saah, Boadie W Dunlop, William M McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dissociative anesthetic agent ketamine is increasingly being utilized to treat depression, despite not having FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for this indication. There are many questions about the potential risks of this treatment and hence the proper setting and degree of monitoring required to ensure patient safety. There is limited data about the cardiovascular safety of ketamine when administered at subanesthetic doses to treat depression. METHODS: 66 patients in the Department of Psychiatry at Emory University received a total of 684 ketamine infusions between 2014 and 2016...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Chittaranjan Andrade
Ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, is gaining recognition as an off-label treatment for severe and even treatment-refractory depression. This article explores potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of relevance to the use of ketamine in depression. Sparse evidence suggests that ketamine will not induce clinically significant drug interactions except to the extent that these are predictable by its clinical actions. A small body of literature indicates that drugs that induce cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6 and CYP3A4 will reduce exposure to ketamine and that drugs that inhibit these enzymes will increase exposure to ketamine...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
BACKGROUND: Ketamine, administered in subanesthetic doses, is an effective off-label treatment for severe and even treatment-refractory depression; however, despite dozens of studies across nearly 2 decades of research, there is no definitive guidance on matters related to core practice issues. METHODS: This article presents a qualitative review and summary about what is known about ketamine dosing, rate of administration, route of administration, duration of treatment, and frequency of sessions...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
Ketamine is an anesthetic drug that is also used for off-label indications such as the mediation of analgesia and sedation in various settings. It is additionally recognized as an agent with antidepressant potential. For depression, it is most commonly administered as a slow intravenous infusion in subanesthetic doses (usually 0.5 mg/kg). As an antidepressant, is strikingly different from conventional antidepressant drugs in that it brings about rapid and marked attenuation of depressive symptoms even in patients with refractory depression...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
There is a substantial body of literature comprising anecdotal material and descriptions of uncontrolled and randomized controlled trials addressing the use of subanesthetic doses of ketamine for the off-label treatment of major depressive episodes. This article examines diagnostic indications for the off-label use of ketamine as an antidepressant and possible contexts in which ketamine may be trialled. Ketamine is indicated in patients who are in a major depressive episode. Most of the research data have been collected from patients with major depressive disorder, but patients with bipolar depression have also been studied...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kelly Jonkman, Tine van de Donk, Albert Dahan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we assess the benefit of ketamine in the treatment of terminal cancer pain that is refractory to opioid treatment and/or complicated by neuropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: While randomized controlled trials consistently show lack of clinical efficacy of ketamine in treating cancer pain, a large number of open-label studies and case series show benefit. SUMMARY: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that at low-dose has effective analgesic properties...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Lael Reinstatler, Nagy A Youssef
OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature on the efficacy of ketamine for the treatment of suicidal ideation (SI). METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to January 2015 for clinical trials and case reports describing therapeutic ketamine administration to patients presenting with SI/suicidality. Searches were also conducted for relevant background material regarding the pharmacological function of ketamine. RESULTS: Nine publications (six studies and three case reports) met the search criteria for assessing SI after administration of subanesthetic ketamine...
March 2015: Drugs in R&D
André Schmidt, Rosilla Bachmann, Michael Kometer, Philipp A Csomor, Klaas E Stephan, Erich Seifritz, Franz X Vollenweider
Psychotomimetics like the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) agonist psilocybin induce psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers that resemble those of schizophrenia. Recent theories of psychosis posit that aberrant encoding of prediction errors (PE) may underlie the expression of psychotic symptoms. This study used a roving mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm to investigate whether the encoding of PE is affected by pharmacological manipulation of NMDAR or 5-HT(2A)R, and whether the encoding of PE under placebo can be used to predict drug-induced symptoms...
March 2012: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
R Edward Roberts, H Valerie Curran, Karl J Friston, Celia J A Morgan
Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that has been found to induce schizophrenia-type symptoms in humans and is a potent and fast-acting antidepressant. It is also a relatively widespread drug of abuse, particularly in China and the UK. Acute administration has been well characterized, but the effect of extended periods of ketamine use-on brain structure in humans-remains poorly understood. We measured indices of white matter microstructural integrity and connectivity in the brain of 16 ketamine users and 16 poly-drug-using controls, and we used probabilistic tractography to quantify changes in corticosubcortical connectivity associated with ketamine use...
January 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology
Jeffrey Burgdorf, Xiao-lei Zhang, Katherine L Nicholson, Robert L Balster, J David Leander, Patric K Stanton, Amanda L Gross, Roger A Kroes, Joseph R Moskal
Recent human clinical studies with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine have revealed profound and long-lasting antidepressant effects with rapid onset in several clinical trials, but antidepressant effects were preceded by dissociative side effects. Here we show that GLYX-13, a novel NMDAR glycine-site functional partial agonist, produces an antidepressant-like effect in the Porsolt, novelty induced hypophagia, and learned helplessness tests in rats without exhibiting substance abuse-related, gating, and sedative side effects of ketamine in the drug discrimination, conditioned place preference, pre-pulse inhibition and open-field tests...
April 2013: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
James W Murrough, Dan V Iosifescu, Lee C Chang, Rayan K Al Jurdi, Charles E Green, Andrew M Perez, Syed Iqbal, Sarah Pillemer, Alexandra Foulkes, Asim Shah, Dennis S Charney, Sanjay J Mathew
OBJECTIVE: Ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has shown rapid antidepressant effects, but small study groups and inadequate control conditions in prior studies have precluded a definitive conclusion. The authors evaluated the rapid antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in a large group of patients with treatment-resistant major depression. METHOD: This was a two-site, parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial of a single infusion of ketamine compared to an active placebo control condition, the anesthetic midazolam...
October 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
Janet Hardy, Stephen Quinn, Belinda Fazekas, John Plummer, Simon Eckermann, Meera Agar, Odette Spruyt, Debra Rowett, David C Currow
PURPOSE: The anesthetic ketamine is widely used for pain related to cancer, but the evidence to support its use in this setting is weak. This study aimed to determine whether ketamine is more effective than placebo when used in conjunction with opioids and standard adjuvant therapy in the management of chronic uncontrolled cancer pain. Ketamine would be considered of net benefit if it provided clinically relevant improvement in pain with limited breakthrough analgesia and acceptable toxicity...
October 10, 2012: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Steven M Green, Mark G Roback, Baruch Krauss, Lance Brown, Ray G McGlone, Dewesh Agrawal, Michele McKee, Markus Weiss, Raymond D Pitetti, Mark A Hostetler, Joe E Wathen, Greg Treston, Barbara M Garcia Pena, Andreas C Gerber, Joseph D Losek
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although ketamine is one of the most commonly used sedatives to facilitate painful procedures for children in the emergency department (ED), existing studies have not been large enough to identify clinical factors that are predictive of uncommon airway and respiratory adverse events. METHODS: We pooled individual-patient data from 32 ED studies and performed multiple logistic regressions to determine which clinical variables would predict airway and respiratory adverse events...
August 2009: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Edward B Perry, Joyce A Cramer, Hyun-Sang Cho, Ismene L Petrakis, Laurence P Karper, Angelina Genovese, Elizabeth O'Donnell, John H Krystal, D Cyril D'Souza
RATIONALE: A growing number of investigators are studying ketamine effects in healthy human subjects, but concerns remain about its safety as a research tool. Therefore, it is timely to revisit the safety of subanesthetic doses of ketamine in experimental psychopharmacology studies. OBJECTIVE: To report on the safety of laboratory studies with subanesthetic doses of ketamine in healthy humans using an existing dataset. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medically healthy subjects with no personal or familial Axis I psychotic spectrum disorders were administered subanesthetic doses of ketamine by intravenous infusion in a series of clinical investigations from 1989 to 2005...
June 2007: Psychopharmacology
Finn L S Coulter, Jacqueline A Hannam, Brian J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Propofol mixed with racemic ketamine (or 'ketofol') is popular for short procedural sedation and analgesia. Use is creeping into anesthesia, yet neither the optimal combination nor infusion rate is known. The EC(50) of propofol's antiemetic effect is reported to be 0.343 mg·l(-1), while ketamine analgesia is thought to persist with concentrations above 0.2 mg·l(-1). We aimed to determine a ketofol dosing regimen for anesthesia 30-min and 1.5-h duration in a healthy child that did not unduly compromise recovery...
August 2014: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Christophe Aveline, Alain Le Roux, Hubert Le Hetet, Jean F Gautier, Pierre Vautier, Fabrice Cognet, Francis Bonnet
OBJECTIVES: Ketamine and nefopam has been documented to decrease pain intensity and improve rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We conducted a follow-up study of a previously randomized clinical trial to determine the prevalence and risk factors of chronic pain 1 year after TKA and to assess the role of perioperative administration of ketamine and nefopam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The original randomized, double-blind trial evaluated postoperative pain in 75 patients scheduled for TKA who received either a 48-hour infusion of ketamine or nefopam compared with placebo...
September 2014: Clinical Journal of Pain
2014-10-04 18:46:56
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