J van der Leeuw, Y van der Graaf, H M Nathoe, G J de Borst, L J Kappelle, F L J Visseren
OBJECTIVES: A remarkable variation exists in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity. We evaluated the separate and combined effects of adiposity and cardiometabolic dysfunction on the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with vascular disease. METHODS: We prospectively followed 5231 patients with a history of clinical cardiovascular disease without diabetes from the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study. Patients were classified according to body mass index and cardiometabolic function...
September 15, 2014: Heart
Jun Ling Lu, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Jennie Z Ma, L Darryl Quarles, Csaba P Kovesdy
Obesity is associated with higher mortality in the general population, but this association is reversed in patients on dialysis. The nature of the relationship of obesity with adverse clinical outcomes in nondialysis-dependent CKD and the putative interaction of the severity of disease with this association are unclear. We analyzed data from a nationally representative cohort of 453,946 United States veterans with eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The associations of body mass index categories (<20, 20 to <25, 25 to <30, 30 to <35, 35 to <40, 40 to <45, 45 to <50, and ≥50 kg/m(2)) with all-cause mortality and disease progression (using multiple definitions, including incidence of ESRD, doubling of serum creatinine, and the slopes of eGFR) were examined in Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression models...
September 2014: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Katherine J Dick, Christopher P Nelson, Loukia Tsaprouni, Johanna K Sandling, Dylan Aïssi, Simone Wahl, Eshwar Meduri, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, France Gagnon, Harald Grallert, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Jeanette Erdmann, Christian Hengstenberg, Francois Cambien, Alison H Goodall, Willem H Ouwehand, Heribert Schunkert, John R Thompson, Tim D Spector, Christian Gieger, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Panos Deloukas, Nilesh J Samani
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem that is determined by interactions between lifestyle and environmental and genetic factors. Although associations between several genetic variants and body-mass index (BMI) have been identified, little is known about epigenetic changes related to BMI. We undertook a genome-wide analysis of methylation at CpG sites in relation to BMI. METHODS: 479 individuals of European origin recruited by the Cardiogenics Consortium formed our discovery cohort...
June 7, 2014: Lancet
Gesa Joslowski, Jocelyn Halim, Janina Goletzke, Megan Gow, Mandy Ho, Jimmy C-Y Louie, Anette E Buyken, Chris T Cowell, Sarah P Garnett
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The optimal dietary approach for weight loss and improving insulin sensitivity in adolescents is unknown. This study aimed to explore the association between the estimated insulin demand of the diet, as measured by glycemic and insulin load, weight loss, percentage body fat and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) in obese adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance and/or prediabetes after a 3 month lifestyle and metformin intervention. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of 91 adolescents (median age 12...
February 2015: Clinical Nutrition
Anita P Courcoulas, Nicholas J Christian, Steven H Belle, Paul D Berk, David R Flum, Luis Garcia, Mary Horlick, Melissa A Kalarchian, Wendy C King, James E Mitchell, Emma J Patterson, John R Pender, Alfons Pomp, Walter J Pories, Richard C Thirlby, Susan Z Yanovski, Bruce M Wolfe
IMPORTANCE: Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥35) is associated with a broad range of health risks. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss and short-term health improvements, but little is known about long-term outcomes of these operations. OBJECTIVE: To report 3-year change in weight and select health parameters after common bariatric surgical procedures. DESIGN AND SETTING: The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers...
December 11, 2013: JAMA
Stephen P Messier, Shannon L Mihalko, Claudine Legault, Gary D Miller, Barbara J Nicklas, Paul DeVita, Daniel P Beavers, David J Hunter, Mary F Lyles, Felix Eckstein, Jeff D Williamson, J Jeffery Carr, Ali Guermazi, Richard F Loeser
IMPORTANCE: Knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common cause of chronic pain and disability, has biomechanical and inflammatory origins and is exacerbated by obesity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a ≥10% reduction in body weight induced by diet, with or without exercise, would improve mechanistic and clinical outcomes more than exercise alone. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-blind, 18-month, randomized clinical trial at Wake Forest University between July 2006 and April 2011...
September 25, 2013: JAMA
Rena R Wing, Paula Bolin, Frederick L Brancati, George A Bray, Jeanne M Clark, Mace Coday, Richard S Crow, Jeffrey M Curtis, Caitlin M Egan, Mark A Espeland, Mary Evans, John P Foreyt, Siran Ghazarian, Edward W Gregg, Barbara Harrison, Helen P Hazuda, James O Hill, Edward S Horton, Van S Hubbard, John M Jakicic, Robert W Jeffery, Karen C Johnson, Steven E Kahn, Abbas E Kitabchi, William C Knowler, Cora E Lewis, Barbara J Maschak-Carey, Maria G Montez, Anne Murillo, David M Nathan, Jennifer Patricio, Anne Peters, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Henry Pownall, David Reboussin, Judith G Regensteiner, Amy D Rickman, Donna H Ryan, Monika Safford, Thomas A Wadden, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Delia S West, David F Williamson, Susan Z Yanovski
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among such patients. METHODS: In 16 study centers in the United States, we randomly assigned 5145 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes to participate in an intensive lifestyle intervention that promoted weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity (intervention group) or to receive diabetes support and education (control group)...
July 11, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Katherine M Flegal, Brian K Kit, Heather Orpana, Barry I Graubard
IMPORTANCE: Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of reported hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight in the general population. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched through September 30, 2012, without language restrictions...
January 2, 2013: JAMA
Asaf Vivante, Eliezer Golan, Dorit Tzur, Adi Leiba, Amir Tirosh, Karl Skorecki, Ronit Calderon-Margalit
BACKGROUND: The relationship between adolescent body mass index (BMI) and future risk for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is not fully understood, nor is it known the extent to which this association is limited to diabetic ESRD. We evaluated the association between BMI in adolescence and the risk for all-cause, diabetic, and nondiabetic ESRD. METHODS: Medical data about 1 194 704 adolescents aged 17 years who had been examined for fitness for military service between January 1, 1967, and December 31, 1997, were linked to the Israeli ESRD registry in this nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study...
November 26, 2012: Archives of Internal Medicine
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