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County Trauma Readings

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16 papers 0 to 25 followers Selected papers that should influence how we practice
Bardiya Zangbar, Mazhar Khalil, Peter Rhee, Bellal Joseph, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Randall S Friese, Terence O'Keeffe
BACKGROUND: Multiple prior studies have suggested an association between survival and beta-blocker administration in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, it is unknown whether this benefit of beta-blockers is dependent on heart rate control. The aim of this study was to assess whether rate control affects survival in patients receiving metoprolol with severe TBI. Our hypothesis was that improved survival from beta-blockade would be associated with a reduction in heart rate...
February 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
Peter J D Andrews, H Louise Sinclair, Aryelly Rodriguez, Bridget A Harris, Claire G Battison, Jonathan K J Rhodes, Gordon D Murray
BACKGROUND: In patients with traumatic brain injury, hypothermia can reduce intracranial hypertension. The benefit of hypothermia on functional outcome is unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults with an intracranial pressure of more than 20 mm Hg despite stage 1 treatments (including mechanical ventilation and sedation management) to standard care (control group) or hypothermia (32 to 35°C) plus standard care. In the control group, stage 2 treatments (e.g...
December 17, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Lois K Lee, David Monroe, Michael C Bachman, Todd F Glass, Prashant V Mahajan, Arthur Cooper, Rachel M Stanley, Michelle Miskin, Peter S Dayan, James F Holmes, Nathan Kuppermann
IMPORTANCE: A history of loss of consciousness (LOC) is frequently a driving factor for computed tomography use in the emergency department evaluation of children with blunt head trauma. Computed tomography carries a nonnegligible risk for lethal radiation-induced malignancy. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) derived 2 age-specific prediction rules with 6 variables for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI), which included LOC as one of the risk factors...
September 2014: JAMA Pediatrics
John David Cull, Lauren M Sakai, Imran Sabir, Brent Johnson, Andrew Tully, Kimberly Nagy, Andrew Dennis, Frederic L Starr, Kimberly Joseph, Dorion Wiley, Henry R Moore, Uretz J Oliphant, Faran Bokhari
An increasing number of patients are presenting to trauma units with head injuries on antiplatelet therapy (APT). The influence of APT on these patients is poorly defined. This study examines the outcomes of patients on APT presenting to the hospital with blunt head trauma (BHT). Registries of two Level I trauma centers were reviewed for patients older than 40 years of age from January 2008 to December 2011 with BHT. Patients on APT were compared with control subjects. Primary outcome measures were in-hospital mortality, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and need for neurosurgical intervention (NI)...
February 2015: American Surgeon
K L Kaups, J W Davis
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of indirect spinal column injury in patients sustaining gunshot wounds to the head. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient records and autopsy reports was conducted of patients admitted with gunshot wounds to the head between July of 1990 and September of 1995 were included. Those with gunshot wounds to the neck and those who were dead on arrival were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 215 patients were included in the study...
May 1998: Journal of Trauma
R Lanoix, R Gupta, L Leak, J Pierre
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of C-spine injury (CSI) associated with gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head. METHODS: A retrospective chart review including patients with GSWs to the head and excluding those with penetrating facial/neck trauma was performed. Cervical clearance was by clinical/radiologic criteria in survivors, and autopsy in nonsurvivors. A MEDLINE literature search was performed and relevant articles reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-four charts were available for review; 90 had C-spine radiographs (complete series [49], lateral [33], and computed tomographic scan [8])...
November 2000: Journal of Trauma
Haleema Shakur, Ian Roberts, Raúl Bautista, José Caballero, Tim Coats, Yashbir Dewan, Hesham El-Sayed, Tamar Gogichaishvili, Sanjay Gupta, Jorge Herrera, Beverley Hunt, Pius Iribhogbe, Mario Izurieta, Hussein Khamis, Edward Komolafe, María-Acelia Marrero, Jorge Mejía-Mantilla, Jaime Miranda, Carlos Morales, Oluwole Olaomi, Fatos Olldashi, Pablo Perel, Richard Peto, P V Ramana, R R Ravi, Surakrant Yutthakasemsunt
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid can reduce bleeding in patients undergoing elective surgery. We assessed the effects of early administration of a short course of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and the receipt of blood transfusion in trauma patients. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 274 hospitals in 40 countries. 20 211 adult trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding were randomly assigned within 8 h of injury to either tranexamic acid (loading dose 1 g over 10 min then infusion of 1 g over 8 h) or matching placebo...
July 3, 2010: Lancet
Victor Y Kong, George V Oosthuizen, Damian L Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Routine chest radiography (CXR) following tube thoracostomy (TT) is a standard practice in most trauma centres worldwide. Evidence supporting this routine practice is lacking and the actual yield is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 1042 patients over a 4-year period who had a routine post-insertion CXR performed in accordance with current ATLS® recommendations. RESULTS: A total 1042 TTs were performed on 1004 patients...
January 2015: Injury
P L van Rooyen, V O L Karusseit, T Mokoena
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating injury may involve the major vessels in the abdomen. Injury to the abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC) is uncommon and is usually caused by gunshot wounds. Mortality from IVC injuries is high and has changed little over time. AIM: The aim of the study was to report a series of IVC injuries from an urban trauma unit and to compare this with reports from similar institutions. METHOD: A retrospective review of penetrating abdominal injuries at Kalafong Hospital from 1993 to 2010 was performed...
January 2015: Injury
M Anderson, M Fitzgerald, K Martin, M Santamaria, S Arendse, G O'Reilly, de V Smit, U Orda, S Marasco
BACKGROUND: Intercostal catheter (ICC) insertion is the standard pleural decompression and drainage technique for blunt and penetrating traumatic injury. Potentially high complication rates are associated with the procedure, with the literature quoting over 20% in some cases (1-4). Empyema in particular is a serious complication. Risk adverse industries such as the airline industry and military services regularly employ checklists to standardise performance and decrease human errors. The use of checklists in medical practice is exemplified by introduction of the WHO Surgical Safety checklist...
January 2015: Injury
Nicole Fox, Diane Schwartz, Jose H Salazar, Elliott R Haut, Philipp Dahm, James H Black, Scott C Brakenridge, John J Como, Kimberly Hendershot, David R King, Adrian A Maung, Matthew L Moorman, Kimberly Nagy, Laura B Petrey, Ronald Tesoriero, Thomas M Scalea, Timothy C Fabian
BACKGROUND: Blunt traumatic aortic injury (BTAI) is the second most common cause of death in trauma patients. Eighty percent of patients with BTAI will die before reaching a trauma center. The issues of how to diagnose, treat, and manage BTAI were first addressed by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) in the practice management guidelines on this topic published in 2000. Since that time, there have been advances in the management of BTAI. As a result, the EAST guidelines committee decided to develop updated guidelines for this topic using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework recently adopted by EAST...
January 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ben Alexander Daniel Lendrem, Dennis William Lendrem, Andy Gray, John Dudley Isaacs
Sex differences in risk seeking behaviour, emergency hospital admissions, and mortality are well documented. However, little is known about sex differences in idiotic risk taking behaviour. This paper reviews the data on winners of the Darwin Award over a 20 year period (1995-2014). Winners of the Darwin Award must eliminate themselves from the gene pool in such an idiotic manner that their action ensures one less idiot will survive. This paper reports a marked sex difference in Darwin Award winners: males are significantly more likely to receive the award than females (P<0...
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Brett E Skolnick, Andrew I Maas, Raj K Narayan, Roland Gerritsen van der Hoop, Thomas MacAllister, John D Ward, Neta R Nelson, Nino Stocchetti
BACKGROUND: Progesterone has been associated with robust positive effects in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and with clinical benefits in two phase 2 randomized, controlled trials. We investigated the efficacy and safety of progesterone in a large, prospective, phase 3 randomized clinical trial. METHODS: We conducted a multinational placebo-controlled trial, in which 1195 patients, 16 to 70 years of age, with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score, ≤8 [on a scale of 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating a reduced level of consciousness] and at least one reactive pupil) were randomly assigned to receive progesterone or placebo...
December 25, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Omar Medina, Gabriel A Arom, Michael G Yeranosian, Frank A Petrigliano, David R McAllister
BACKGROUND: Vascular injury is a devastating complication of acute knee dislocation. However, there are wide discrepancies in the reported frequency of vascular injury after knee dislocations, as well as important differences among approaches for diagnosis of this potentially limb-threatening problem. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We determined (1) the frequency of vascular and neurologic injury after knee dislocation and whether it varied by the type of knee dislocation, (2) the frequency with which surgical intervention was performed for vascular injury in this setting, and (3) the frequency with which each imaging modality was used to detect vascular injury...
September 2014: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Sandro B Rizoli, Kenneth D Boffard, Bruno Riou, Brian Warren, Philip Iau, Yoram Kluger, Rolf Rossaint, Michael Tillinger
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a post-hoc analysis on the effect of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on coagulopathic patients from two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of rFVIIa as an adjunctive therapy for bleeding in patients with severe trauma. METHODS: Blunt and penetrating trauma patients were randomly assigned to rFVIIa (200 + 100 + 100 microg/kg) at 0, 1, and 3 hours after transfusion of 8 units of red blood cells (RBCs) or to placebo. Subjects were monitored for 48 hours post-dosing and followed for 30 days...
2006: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Peep Talving, Andrew J Nicol, Pradeep H Navsaria
INTRODUCTION: Low-velocity gunshot wounds cause most civilian duodenal injuries. The objective of this study was to describe a simplified surgical algorithm currently in use in a South African civilian trauma center and to verify its validity by measuring morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with duodenal gunshot injuries during the study period January 1999 to December 2003 was performed. Data points accrued included patient demographics, admission hemodynamic status and resuscitative measures, laparotomy damage control procedures, methods of surgical repair of the duodenal injury, associated injuries, length of intensive care and hospital stays, complications, and mortality...
April 2006: World Journal of Surgery
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