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By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
Albert Beckers, Patrick Petrossians, Julien Hanson, Adrian F Daly
In the general population, height is determined by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Pituitary gigantism is a rare but very important subgroup of patients with excessive height, as it has an identifiable and clinically treatable cause. The disease is caused by chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretion from a pituitary somatotrope adenoma that forms before the closure of the epiphyses. If not controlled effectively, this hormonal hypersecretion could lead to extremely elevated final adult height...
October 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Lucio Vilar, Clarice Freitas Vilar, Ruy Lyra, Raissa Lyra, Luciana A Naves
BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare and underdiagnosed disorder caused, in more than 95% of cases, by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The GH hypersecretion leads to overproduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) which results in a multisystem disease characterized by somatic overgrowth, multiple comorbidities, physical disfigurement, and increased mortality. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the clinical features of acromegaly at diagnosis...
February 2017: Pituitary
Aikaterini Lavrentaki, Alessandro Paluzzi, John A H Wass, Niki Karavitaki
Acromegaly is a rare condition necessitating large population studies for the generation of reliable epidemiological data. In this review, we systematically analysed the epidemiological profile of this condition based on recently published population studies from various geographical areas. The total prevalence ranges between 2.8 and 13.7 cases per 100,000 people and the annual incidence rates range between 0.2 and 1.1 cases/100,000 people. The median age at diagnosis is in the fifth decade of life with a median diagnostic delay of 4...
February 2017: Pituitary
Johannes A Romijn
Ultimately, almost all patients who are appropriately treated for pituitary tumours enter a chronic phase with control or cure of hormonal excess, adequate treatment of pituitary insufficiency and relief of mass effects. This phase is associated with improvement of initial signs and symptoms, but also with the persistent consequences of the initial disease and associated treatments. Pituitary insufficiency is a common denominator in many of these patients, and is associated with a reduction in quality of life, despite adequate endocrine substitution...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Daniel Cuevas-Ramos, Maria Fleseriu
Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with active acromegaly are higher than the general population. Adequate biochemical control restores mortality to normal rates. Now, medical therapy has an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients with acromegaly. Somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) are considered the standard medical therapy, either after surgery or as a first-line therapy when surgery is deemed ineffective or is contraindicated. Overall, octreotide and lanreotide are first-generation SRLs and are effective in ~20%-70% of patients...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Jeremy R Anthony, Adriana G Ioachimescu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on current understanding of osteoporosis associated with acromegaly. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with acromegaly have an increased risk of morphometric vertebral fractures. This seems to correlate with acromegaly activity and its duration, but it persists after biochemical control is achieved. Coexistent hypogonadism, diabetes mellitus and over-replacement with glucocorticoids have additional detrimental effects. Bone mineral density can be normal, increased or decreased, and is usually discordant with occurrence of fractures...
December 2014: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Daniel Cuevas-Ramos, John D Carmichael, Odelia Cooper, Vivien S Bonert, Arkadiusz Gertych, Adam N Mamelak, Shlomo Melmed
CONTEXT: GH-secreting pituitary adenomas exhibit heterogeneous natural history ranging from small tumors to large aggressive adenomas. OBJECTIVE: To rigorously classify an acromegaly patient cohort defined by clinical, radiological, histopathological, and outcome characteristics. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral pituitary center. PATIENTS: Subjects were selected from a pituitary tumor research registry that includes 1178 patients with pituitary disease...
January 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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