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A Repository for Review Articles

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By Varun Shetty Critical Care fellow with background training in Internal Medicine-Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/26627539/patient-ventilator-asynchrony
#1
REVIEW
Gaston Murias, Umberto Lucangelo, Lluis Blanch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to alert clinicians to the prevalent and frequently underrecognized problem of asynchrony in mechanically ventilated patients. To provide a mechanistic model of patient-ventilator asynchrony to help personnel understand how different asynchronies develop. To provide practical advice on how to recognize and solve different asynchronies in different contexts. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient-ventilator asynchrony is a serious problem that is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU and hospital stays, and increased mortality...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478708/caring-for-the-critically-ill-patients-over-80-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Bertrand Guidet, Helene Vallet, Jacques Boddaert, Dylan W de Lange, Alessandro Morandi, Guillaume Leblanc, Antonio Artigas, Hans Flaatten
BACKGROUND: There is currently no international recommendation for the admission or treatment of the critically ill older patients over 80 years of age in the intensive care unit (ICU), and there is no valid prognostic severity score that includes specific geriatric assessments. MAIN BODY: In this review, we report recent literature focusing on older critically ill patients in order to help physicians in the multiple-step decision-making process. It is unclear under what conditions older patients may benefit from ICU admission...
November 26, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/16808753/a-clinician-educator-s-roadmap-to-choosing-and-interpreting-statistical-tests
#3
REVIEW
Donna M Windish, Marie Diener-West
As educators seek confirmation of successful trainee achievement, medical education must move toward a more evidence-based approach to teaching and evaluation. Although medical training often provides physicians with a general background in biostatistics, many are not prepared to apply these skills. This can hinder clinician educators as they wish to develop, analyze and disseminate their scholarly work. This paper is intended to be a concise educational tool and guide for choosing and interpreting statistical tests aimed toward medical education assessment...
June 2006: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30194516/loop-diuretics-in-chronic-heart-failure-how-to-manage-congestion
#4
REVIEW
Justas Simonavičius, Christian Knackstedt, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca
Loop diuretics remain the cornerstone of congestion management in contemporary chronic heart failure care. However, their use is not supported by high quality data, and there is doubt about the safety in the outpatient heart failure setting. Still, congestion is related to a worse outcome, and there is general consensus among experts that congestion should not be tolerated in heart failure patients. Recommendations in international guidelines, regarding decongestion strategies in chronic heart failure, are limited...
January 2019: Heart Failure Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29624860/hepatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-and-management
#5
REVIEW
Piero Amodio
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a peculiar kind of brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic shunting. It is related to gut-derived substances. It is a relevant cause of morbidity and hospitalisation for patients with cirrhosis. The prognosis of HE is important in terms of survival and re-hospitalisation. It is related to impaired quality of life, falls and poor driving; presents a relevant burden for caregivers and health services; and may negatively impact on patient's job and income...
June 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30042314/spinal-cord-stimulation-for-neuropathic-pain-current-trends-and-future-applications
#6
REVIEW
Ivano Dones, Vincenzo Levi
The origin and the neural pathways involved in chronic neuropathic pain are still not extensively understood. For this reason, despite the wide variety of pain medications available on the market, neuropathic pain is challenging to treat. The present therapeutic alternative considered as the gold standard for many kinds of chronic neuropathic pain is epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Despite its proved efficacy, the favourable cost-effectiveness when compared to the long-term use of poorly effective drugs and the expanding array of indications and technical improvements, SCS is still worldwide largely neglected by general practitioners, neurologists, neurosurgeons and pain therapists, often bringing to a large delay in considering as a therapeutic option for patients affected by neuropathic chronic pain...
July 24, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30207018/bronchiectasis-treatment-decisions-for-pulmonary-exacerbations-and-their-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Scott C Bell, Joseph S Elborn, Catherine A Byrnes
Interest in bronchiectasis has increased over the past two decades, as shown by the establishment of disease-specific registries in several countries, the publication of management guidelines and a growing number of clinical trials to address evidence gaps for treatment decisions. This review considers the evidence for defining and treating pulmonary exacerbations, the approaches for eradication of newly identified airway pathogens and the methods to prevent exacerbations through long-term treatments from a pragmatic practice-based perspective...
November 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30122506/predicting-fluid-responsiveness-a-review-of-literature-and-a-guide-for-the-clinician
#8
REVIEW
Bilal A Jalil, Rodrigo Cavallazzi
Volume resuscitation is of utmost importance in the treatment of shock. It is imperative that this resuscitation be guided using a reliable method of ascertaining volume status to avoid the ill-effects of hypovolemia while also avoiding those of over-resuscitation. There are numerous tools and methods available in this era to aid the bedside physician in guiding volume resuscitation, many of which will be described in this review of literature. The methods to assess preload responsiveness are broadly divided into static and dynamic measurements...
November 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30076965/complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-hospice-and-palliative-care-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Yvette S Zeng, Connie Wang, Kristina E Ward, Anne L Hume
CONTEXT: The aim of palliative care is to improve quality of life for patients with serious illnesses by treating their symptoms and adverse effects. Hospice care also aims for this for patients with a life expectancy of six months or less. When conventional therapies do not provide adequate symptom management or produce their own adverse effects, patients, families, and caregivers may prefer complementary or alternative approaches in their care. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the available evidence on the use of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) in hospice and palliative care and to summarize their potential benefits...
November 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30072710/intravenous-fluid-therapy-in-critically-ill-adults
#10
REVIEW
Simon Finfer, John Myburgh, Rinaldo Bellomo
Intravenous fluid therapy is one of the most common interventions in acutely ill patients. Each day, over 20% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) receive intravenous fluid resuscitation, and more than 30% receive fluid resuscitation during their first day in the ICU. Virtually all hospitalized patients receive intravenous fluid to maintain hydration and as diluents for drug administration. Until recently, the amount and type of fluids administered were based on a theory described over 100 years ago, much of which is inconsistent with current physiological data and emerging knowledge...
September 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29540496/exacerbations-of-copd
#11
REVIEW
Christian Viniol, Claus F Vogelmeier
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death worldwide. While COPD is a mainly chronic disease, a substantial number of patients suffer from exacerbations. Severe exacerbations are related to a significantly worse survival outcome. This review summarises the current knowledge on the different aspects of COPD exacerbations. The impact of risk factors and triggers such as smoking, severe airflow limitation, bronchiectasis, bacterial and viral infections and comorbidities is discussed...
March 31, 2018: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29501369/acute-pancreatitis-guideline
#12
Seth Crockett, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Sachin Wani, Timothy B Gardner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/23493539/fructose-it-s-alcohol-without-the-buzz
#13
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28602971/new-developments-in-hepatorenal-syndrome
#14
Ayse L Mindikoglu, Stephen C Pappas
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) continues to be one of the major complications of decompensated cirrhosis, leading to death in the absence of liver transplantation. Challenges in precisely evaluating renal function in the patient with cirrhosis remain because of the limitations of serum creatinine (Cr) alone in estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR); current GFR estimating models appear to underestimate renal dysfunction. Newer models incorporating renal biomarkers, such as the Cr-Cystatin C GFR Equation for Cirrhosis appear to estimate measured GFR more accurately...
February 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28320242/early-goal-directed-therapy-for-septic-shock-a-patient-level-meta-analysis
#15
Kathryn M Rowan, Derek C Angus, Michael Bailey, Amber E Barnato, Rinaldo Bellomo, Ruth R Canter, Timothy J Coats, Anthony Delaney, Elizabeth Gimbel, Richard D Grieve, David A Harrison, Alisa M Higgins, Belinda Howe, David T Huang, John A Kellum, Paul R Mouncey, Edvin Music, Sandra L Peake, Francis Pike, Michael C Reade, M Zia Sadique, Mervyn Singer, Donald M Yealy
BACKGROUND: After a single-center trial and observational studies suggesting that early, goal-directed therapy (EGDT) reduced mortality from septic shock, three multicenter trials (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe) showed no benefit. This meta-analysis of individual patient data from the three recent trials was designed prospectively to improve statistical power and explore heterogeneity of treatment effect of EGDT. METHODS: We harmonized entry criteria, intervention protocols, outcomes, resource-use measures, and data collection across the trials and specified all analyses before unblinding...
June 8, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28455343/2017-acc-aha-hfsa-focused-update-of-the-2013-accf-aha-guideline-for-the-management-of-heart-failure-a-report-of-the-american-college-of-cardiology-american-heart-association-task-force-on-clinical-practice-guidelines-and-the-heart-failure-society-of-america
#16
REVIEW
Clyde W Yancy, Mariell Jessup, Biykem Bozkurt, Javed Butler, Donald E Casey, Monica M Colvin, Mark H Drazner, Gerasimos S Filippatos, Gregg C Fonarow, Michael M Givertz, Steven M Hollenberg, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Frederick A Masoudi, Patrick E McBride, Pamela N Peterson, Lynne Warner Stevenson, Cheryl Westlake
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Circulation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28395784/acute-mesenteric-ischemia-part-i-incidence-etiologies-and-how-to-improve-early-diagnosis
#17
REVIEW
Jussi M Kärkkäinen, Stefan Acosta
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is generally thought to be a rare disease, but in fact, it is more common cause of acute abdomen than appendicitis or ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients over 75 years of age. In occlusive AMI, surgical treatment without revascularization is associated with as high as 80% overall mortality. It has been shown that early diagnosis with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and revascularization can reduce the overall mortality in AMI by up to 50%. However, only a minority of patients with AMI are being treated actively with revascularization in the United States, and the situation is very likely similar in Europe as well...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28412129/acute-kidney-injury-after-burn
#18
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Javier A Neyra, Tarik Madni, Jonathan Imran, Herb Phelan, Brett Arnoldo, Steven E Wolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and morbid complication after severe burn, with an incidence and mortality as high as 30% and 80%, respectively. AKI is a broad clinical condition with many etiologies, which makes definition and diagnosis challenging. The most recent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) consensus guidelines defined stage and severity of AKI based on changes of serum creatinine and urine output (UOP) across time. Burn-related kidney injury is typically classified as early (0-3days after injury) or late (4-14days after injury)...
August 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28289910/acid-base-disturbances-in-nephrotic-syndrome-analysis-using-the-co-2-hco-3-method-traditional-boston-model-and-the-physicochemical-method-stewart-model
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tomomichi Kasagi, Hirokazu Imai, Naoto Miura, Keisuke Suzuki, Masabumi Yoshino, Hironobu Nobata, Takuhito Nagai, Shogo Banno
BACKGROUND: The Stewart model for analyzing acid-base disturbances emphasizes serum albumin levels, which are ignored in the traditional Boston model. We compared data derived using the Stewart model to those using the Boston model in patients with nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with nephrotic syndrome and six patients without urinary protein or acid-base disturbances provided blood and urine samples for analysis that included routine biochemical and arterial blood gas tests, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone...
October 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28364357/treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-dka-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-hhs-novel-advances-in-the-management-of-hyperglycemic-crises-uk-versus-usa
#20
REVIEW
Ketan K Dhatariya, Priyathama Vellanki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are diabetic emergencies that cause high morbidity and mortality. Their treatment differs in the UK and USA. This review delineates the differences in diagnosis and treatment between the two countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale studies to determine optimal management of DKA and HHS are lacking. The diagnosis of DKA is based on disease severity in the USA, which differs from the UK...
May 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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