Maxwell L Van Tassell, M Angela Daum, Jun-Seob Kim, Michael J Miller
Cell wall lytic enzymes have been of increasing interest as antimicrobials for targeting Gram-positive spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, largely due to the development of strains resistant to antibiotics and bacteriophage therapy. Such lysins show considerable promise against Listeria monocytogenes, a primary concern in food-processing environments, but there is room for improvement via protein engineering. Advances in antilisterial applications could benefit from recent developments in lysin biotechnology that have largely targeted other organisms...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Kathleen Chiotos, Jennifer H Han, Pranita D Tamma
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging global public health threat. Infections due to CRE are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Few therapeutic options are available for treatment of these infections, and optimal antibiotic treatment regimens are unclear. Along with the rapidly increasing prevalence of CRE in the USA and worldwide, several studies have described the epidemiology of CRE in the adult population. While CRE are now also reported sporadically in children, there is a significant lack of data on the epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes in this population...
January 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Michael Baym, Laura K Stone, Roy Kishony
Antibiotic treatment has two conflicting effects: the desired, immediate effect of inhibiting bacterial growth and the undesired, long-term effect of promoting the evolution of resistance. Although these contrasting outcomes seem inextricably linked, recent work has revealed several ways by which antibiotics can be combined to inhibit bacterial growth while, counterintuitively, selecting against resistant mutants. Decoupling treatment efficacy from the risk of resistance can be achieved by exploiting specific interactions between drugs, and the ways in which resistance mutations to a given drug can modulate these interactions or increase the sensitivity of the bacteria to other compounds...
January 1, 2016: Science
Wenjuan Wei, Haifei Yang, Lifen Hu, Ying Ye, Jiabin Li
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections is challenging owing to widespread multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) and the lack of novel agents. Although recent data suggest that levofloxacin (LVX) may have unique activity against MDR-AB in combination with colistin (CST), further preclinical work is needed. METHODS: We used a A. baumannii type strain ATCC19606, a CST-resistant strain AB19606R, and two clinical isolates (GN0624 and GN1115) of MDR-AB to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of LVX-CST combination...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection
Matthew R Hendricks, Lauren P Lashua, Douglas K Fischer, Becca A Flitter, Katherine M Eichinger, Joan E Durbin, Saumendra N Sarkar, Carolyn B Coyne, Kerry M Empey, Jennifer M Bomberger
Clinical observations link respiratory virus infection and Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in chronic lung disease, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The development of P. aeruginosa into highly antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities promotes airway colonization and accounts for disease progression in patients. Although clinical studies show a strong correlation between CF patients' acquisition of chronic P. aeruginosa infections and respiratory virus infection, little is known about the mechanism by which chronic P...
February 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mara Baldry, Betül Kitir, Hanne Frøkiær, Simon B Christensen, Nico Taverne, Marjolein Meijerink, Henrik Franzyk, Christian A Olsen, Jerry M Wells, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistance with the community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300 being of particular concern. The inhibition of bacterial virulence has been proposed as an alternative approach to treat multi-drug resistant pathogens. One interesting anti-virulence target is the agr quorum-sensing system, which regulates virulence of CA-MRSA in response to agr-encoded autoinducing peptides...
2016: PloS One
Sherif T S Hassan, Kateřina Berchová, Michaela Majerová, Marie Pokorná, Emil Švajdlenka
Context The increasing problem of drug-resistant strains has led to the failure of current treatment regimens of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Recently, a new treatment strategy has been developed to overcome the problem by using natural products in combination with antibiotics to enhance the treatment efficacy. Objective The antimicrobial combinatory effect of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) (AEHS) with antibiotics (clarithromycin, CLA; amoxicillin, AMX; metronidazole, MTZ) has been evaluated in vitro against HP strains...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Natasa Stanković Nedeljković, Branislav Tiodorović, Branislava Kocić, Vojislav Cirić, Marko Milojković, Hadi Waisi
INTRODUCTION/AIM: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most common cause of wound infections, following the disruption of the skin or mucous membranes integrity. The aim of this study was to analyze of the presence P. aeruginosa in wound swabs, antibiotics susceptibility testing, determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics, testing of the metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) production, isolates serotyping and analysis of the most common serotypes resistance...
November 2015: Vojnosanitetski Pregled. Military-medical and Pharmaceutical Review
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi, Leili Darvish, Mohammad Abounajmi, Samira Zarei, Tahereh Zare, Mohammad Taheri, Samaneh Nematollahi
BACKGROUND: Many pathogenic bacteria show different levels of antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, a lot of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. According to WHO, patients with drug-resistant infections have higher morbidity and mortality. Moreover, patients infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics considerably consume more healthcare resources. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we explored a physical method of converting drug-resistant bacteria to drug-sensitive ones...
November 2015: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Nobuyuki Ashizawa, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Koyomi Kawago, Yoshitsugu Higashi, Masato Tashiro, Makiko Nogami, Ryuichi Gejo, Munetoshi Narukawa, Tomoatsu Kimura, Yoshihiro Yamamoto
Linezolid is an effective antibiotic against most gram-positive bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Although linezolid therapy is known to result in thrombocytopenia, dosage adjustment or therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid is not generally necessary. In this report, however, we describe the case of a 79-year-old woman with recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus osteomyelitis that was successfully treated via surgery and combination therapy using linezolid and rifampicin under therapeutic drug monitoring for maintaining an appropriate serum linezolid concentration...
May 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Alejandra Gallardo-Godoy, Craig Muldoon, Bernd Becker, Alysha G Elliott, Lawrence H Lash, Johnny X Huang, Mark S Butler, Ruby Pelingon, Angela M Kavanagh, Soumya Ramu, Wanida Phetsang, Mark A T Blaskovich, Matthew A Cooper
The polymyxin lipodecapeptides colistin and polymyxin B have become last resort therapies for infections caused by highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, their utility is compromised by significant nephrotoxicity and polymyxin-resistant bacterial strains. We have conducted a systematic activity-toxicity investigation by varying eight of the nine polymyxin amino acid free side chains, preparing over 30 analogues using a novel solid-phase synthetic route. Compounds were tested against a panel of Gram-negative bacteria and counter-screened for in vitro cell toxicity...
February 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kyle D Sandberg, Timothy M LaPara
The goal of this study was to determine the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and class 1 integrons following the application of swine and dairy manure to soil. Soil microcosms were amended with either manure from swine fed subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics or manure from dairy cows that were given antibiotics only rarely and strictly for veterinary purposes. Microcosms were monitored for 6 months using quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes (a measure of bacterial biomass), intI1, erm(B), tet(A), tet(W) and tet(X)...
February 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Tommaso Cai, Sandra Mazzoli, Paolo Lanzafame, Patrizio Caciagli, Gianni Malossini, Gabriella Nesi, Florian M E Wagenlehner, Bela Köves, Robert Pickard, Magnus Grabe, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen, Riccardo Bartoletti
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary antimicrobial use. The reduction of antibiotic overuse for ABU is consequently an important issue for antimicrobial stewardship and to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistant strains. There are two issues in everyday urological practice that require special attention: the role of ABU in pre-operative prophylaxis and in women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). Nowadays, this is the time to think over our practice and change our way of thinking...
January 5, 2016: Pathogens
George G Zhanel, Andrew J Walkty, James A Karlowsky
BACKGROUND: Due to the limitations of existing treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), new therapies are needed. OBJECTIVE: To review the available data on fidaxomicin regarding chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy and safety in clinical trials, and place in therapy. METHODS: A search of PubMed using the terms "fidaxomicin", "OPT-80", "PAR-101", "OP-1118", "difimicin", "tiacumicin" and "lipiarmycin" was performed...
November 2015: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Parinita A Dherange, Sarah Patel, Evbu Enakpene, Prakash Suryanarayana
We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, Charcot arthropathy and end-stage renal disease, who presented with a syncopal episode after undergoing haemodialysis. She had a history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia from an unknown source 3 months earlier, which was treated with an 8-week course of intravenous antibiotics. At the time of presentation to the emergency room, she was found to be in refractory shock. Bedside echocardiogram was performed, which showed moderate pericardial effusion...
December 7, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
Richa Singh, Utkarsha U Shedbalkar, Sweety A Wadhwani, Balu A Chopade
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received tremendous attention due to their significant antimicrobial properties. Large numbers of reports are available on the physical, chemical, and biological syntheses of colloidal AgNPs. Since there is a great need to develop ecofriendly and sustainable methods, biological systems like bacteria, fungi, and plants are being employed to synthesize these nanoparticles. The present review focuses specifically on bacteria-mediated synthesis of AgNPs, its mechanism, and applications...
June 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Mark A Webber, Rebekah N Whitehead, Manuella Mount, Nick J Loman, Mark J Pallen, Laura J V Piddock
OBJECTIVES: Biocides are widely used to prevent infection. We aimed to determine whether exposure of Salmonella to various biocides could act as a driver of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was exposed to four biocides with differing modes of action. Antibiotic-resistant mutants were selected during exposure to all biocides and characterized phenotypically and genotypically to identify mechanisms of resistance. RESULTS: All biocides tested selected MDR mutants with decreased antibiotic susceptibility; these occurred randomly throughout the experiments...
August 2015: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Huaixing Kang, Xiaomeng Xu, Kaifei Fu, Xioaping An, Zhiqiang Mi, Xiuyun Yin, Fan Peng, Guangqian Pei, Yahui Wang, Yong Huang, Xianglilan Zhang, Zhiyi Zhang, Wei Wang, Lijun Zhou, Jiankui Chen, Yigang Tong
Antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogens have become a serious concern in recent decades, as they are increasingly responsible for hospital-acquired infections. Here, we describe quinolone-resistant Delftia sp. strain 670, isolated from the sputum of a patient who died from severe pulmonary infection. The draft genome sequence of this strain was obtained by whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and was subjected to comparative genome analysis. Genome analysis revealed that one critical mutation (Ser83Ile in gyrA) might play a decisive role in quinolone resistance...
July 2015: Current Microbiology
Yohei Hamada, Hiroki Magarifuchi, Megumi Oho, Koji Kusaba, Zenzo Nagasawa, Mami Fukuoka, Hiroki Yamakuchi, Toshiharu Urakami, Yosuke Aoki
Enterococcus consists human bowel flora, but sometimes behave as an important nosocomial pathogen. In order to identify clinical characteristics that help discriminate between ampicillin-susceptible and ampicillin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in advance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, a retrospective eight-year study was carried out in patients with enterococcal bacteremia experienced in Saga University Hospital, Japan. A total of 143 patients were included in the analysis: 85 (59.4%) with bacteremia caused by ampicillin-susceptible enterococci and 58 (40...
July 2015: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Mar Solé, Pedro Castro, Jorge Luis Torres, Cristina Hernández, Mariano Rinaudo, Sara Fernández, Álex Soriano, José María Nicolás, Josep Mensa, Jordi Vila, José Antonio Martínez
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to investigate the risk factors for the acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its resistance phenotypes in critically ill patients, taking into account colonization pressure. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in an 8-bed medical intensive care unit during a 35-month period. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48 hours of admission and thrice weekly thereafter...
May 4, 2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
2015-05-08 01:46:47
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