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JAMA Rational Clinical Exam Series

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11 papers 100 to 500 followers
C A D'Arcy, S McGee
CONTEXT: History taking and physical examination maneuvers, including Tinel and Phalen signs, are widely used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the precision and accuracy of history taking and physical examination in diagnosing CTS in adults. DATA SOURCES: English-language literature was searched using MEDLINE (January 1966-February 2000) as well as bibliographies of relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of patients presenting to clinicians with symptoms suggestive of CTS in which findings from clearly described physical examination maneuvers were independently compared with electrodiagnostic testing...
June 21, 2000: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
K A Myers, D R Farquhar
CONTEXT: The association between digital clubbing and a host of diseases has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the features of advanced clubbing are familiar to most clinicians, the presence of early clubbing is often a source of debate. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature for information on the precision and accuracy of clinical examination for clubbing. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE database from January 1966 to April 1999 was searched for English-language articles related to clubbing...
July 18, 2001: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
D H Solomon, D L Simel, D W Bates, J N Katz, J L Schaffer
CONTEXT: While most meniscal or ligamentous knee injuries heal with nonoperative treatments, a subset should be treated with arthroscopic or open surgery. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy of the clinical examination for meniscal or ligamentous knee injuries. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-December 31, 2000) and HealthSTAR (1975-December 31, 2000) databases were searched for English-language articles describing the diagnostic accuracy of individual examination items for the knee and a combination of physical examination items (composite examination)...
October 3, 2001: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Christopher A K Y Chong, Matthew B Stanbrook, Andrea C Tricco, Camilla Wong, Sharon E Straus
IMPORTANCE: Thoracentesis is performed to identify the cause of a pleural effusion. Although generally safe, thoracentesis may be complicated by transient hypoxemia, bleeding, patient discomfort, reexpansion pulmonary edema, and pneumothorax. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best means for differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions and also to identify thoracentesis techniques for minimizing the risk of complications by performing a systematic review the evidence...
June 18, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nathaniel R Herr, John W Williams, Sophiya Benjamin, Jennifer McDuffie
IMPORTANCE: In primary care settings, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder are common but underrecognized illnesses. Identifying accurate and feasible screening instruments for GAD and panic disorder has the potential to improve detection and facilitate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy of self-report screening instruments in diagnosing GAD and panic disorder in adults. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published from 1980 through April 2014...
July 2, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Hussein Hollands, Davin Johnson, Simon Hollands, David L Simel, Delan Jinapriya, Sanjay Sharma
IMPORTANCE: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and its insidious onset is often associated with diagnostic delay. Since glaucoma progression can often be effectively diminished when treated, identifying individuals at risk for glaucoma could potentially lead to earlier detection and prevent associated vision loss. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the diagnostic accuracy of examination findings and relevant risk factors in identifying individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma in North America...
May 15, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Karen A D'Silva, Philipp Dahm, Camilla L Wong
IMPORTANCE: Early, accurate diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms may reduce the need for invasive testing (ie, catheter placement, urodynamics), and prompt early treatment to provide symptomatic relief and avoid complications. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on (1) the diagnostic accuracy of office-based tests for bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms; and (2) the accuracy of the bladder scan as a measure of urine volume because management decisions rely on measuring postvoid bladder residual volumes...
August 6, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Greg Rowell, Julio S G Montaner, Peter Phillips, P Todd Korthuis, David L Simel
IMPORTANCE: Timely identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults can contribute to reduced mortality and likelihood of further HIV transmission. During the first 6 months after infection, known as early HIV infection, patients often report a well-described constellation of symptoms and signs. However, the literature examining utility of the clinical examination in identifying early infection has not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of symptoms and signs in identifying early HIV infection among adults...
July 16, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
John R Crochet, Lori A Bastian, Monique V Chireau
IMPORTANCE: The rapid identification and accurate diagnosis of women who may have an ectopic pregnancy is critically important for reducing the maternal morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy and precision of the patient history, clinical examination, readily available laboratory values, and sonography in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in women with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy...
April 24, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Kathryn A Myers, Marko Mrkobrada, David L Simel
IMPORTANCE: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disease, responsible for daytime sleepiness. Prior to referring patients for definitive testing, the likelihood of obstructive sleep apnea should be established in the clinical examination. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the clinical examination accuracy in diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and reference lists from articles were searched from 1966 to June 2013. Titles and abstracts (nā€‰=ā€‰4449) were reviewed for eligibility and appraised for evidence levels...
August 21, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Job Hermans, Jolanda J Luime, Duncan E Meuffels, Max Reijman, David L Simel, Sita M A Bierma-Zeinstra
IMPORTANCE: Rotator cuff disease (RCD) is the most common cause of shoulder pain seen by physicians. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis to identify the most accurate clinical examination findings for RCD. DATA SOURCES: Structured search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL from their inception through May 2013. STUDY SELECTION: For inclusion, a study must have met the following criteria: (1) description of history taking, physical examination, or clinical tests concerning RCD; (2) detailing of sensitivity and specificity; (3) use of a reference standard with diagnostic criteria prespecified; (4) presentation of original data, or original data could be obtained from the authors; and (5) publication in a language mastered by one of the authors (Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish)...
August 28, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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