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N-acetylcysteine as a psychopharmacologic agent

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107 papers 25 to 100 followers This collection includes papers detailing the mechanisms and usage of the above drug and similar agents in treating oxidative stress implicated in neurologic and psychiatric disease.
Shun Zhang, Rui Wang, Guanghui Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The characteristic of PD is the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). DAergic neurons in the SN accumulate black and insoluble membrane structures known as neuromelanin during aging. The oxidation of dopamine (DA) to form neuromelanin generates many o-quinones, including DA o-quinones, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone. The focus of this review is to discuss the role of DA oxidation in association with PD...
December 28, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Masanori Isobe, Sarah A Redden, Nancy J Keuthen, Dan J Stein, Christine Lochner, Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) is characterized by the repetitive pulling out of one's own hair, and is classified as an Obsessive-Compulsive Related Disorder. Abnormalities of the ventral and dorsal striatum have been implicated in disease models of trichotillomania, based on translational research, but direct evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate subcortical morphometric abnormalities, including localized curvature changes, in trichotillomania. De-identified MRI scans were pooled by contacting authors of previous peer-reviewed studies that examined brain structure in adult patients with trichotillomania, following an extensive literature search...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mauro Porcu, Mariana Ragassi Urbano, Waldiceu A Verri, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Marcela Baracat, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Regina Célia Bueno Rezende Machado, Rodrigo Rossetto Pescim, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Outcomes in a RCTs of 12 weeks of theclinical efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an adjunctive treatment on depression and anxiety symptoms and its effects on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. A wide array of measures were made. The 17-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17); the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A); Sheehan Disability Scale; Quality of Life; Clinical Global Impression (CGI); anthropometrics measures; and vital signs and biochemical laboratory. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding demographic, clinical features, use of medication, metabolic syndrome and comorbidities...
May 2018: Psychiatry Research
Konstantin Mechler, Alexander Häge, Nina Schweinfurth, Jeffrey C Glennon, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Declan Murphy, Sarah Durston, Steven Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Tobias Banaschewski, Ralf W Dittmann, The Tactics Consortium
OBJECTIVE: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients...
May 2018: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Daniel A Monti, George Zabrecky, Daniel Kremens, Tsao-Wei Liang, Nancy A Wintering, Jingli Cai, Xiatao Wei, Anthony J Bazzan, Li Zhong, Brendan Bowen, Charles M Intenzo, Lorraine Iacovitti, Andrew B Newberg
BACKGOUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the biological and clinical effects of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The overarching goal of this pilot study was to generate additional data about potentially protective properties of NAC in PD, using an in vitro and in vivo approach. In preparation for the clinical study we performed a cell tissue culture study with human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons that were treated with rotenone as a model for PD...
2016: PloS One
Deepmala, John Slattery, Nihit Kumar, Leanna Delhey, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, Charles Spielholz, Richard Frye
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is recognized for its role in acetaminophen overdose and as a mucolytic. Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence for the use of NAC in treating psychiatric and neurological disorders, considering its role in attenuating pathophysiological processes associated with these disorders, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and glutamate and dopamine dysregulation. In this systematic review we find favorable evidence for the use of NAC in several psychiatric and neurological disorders, particularly autism, Alzheimer's disease, cocaine and cannabis addiction, bipolar disorder, depression, trichotillomania, nail biting, skin picking, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, drug-induced neuropathy and progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
August 2015: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
G Bunt
The burgeoning area of the application of nutritional and alternative medicine technologies in integrated medicine and psychiatry has taken root in the treatment of addictive disorders. Nutritional supplements spanning a wide range may be therapeutic in treating both deficiencies or insufficiencies as well as an adjunct to pharmacological interventions. Nutritional supplements that are commonly utilized in the treatment of addiction disorders and corresponding co-morbid psychiatric disorders or symptoms include l-methylfolate, vitamin D, inositol, l-tryptophan, omega 3 fatty acids, s-adenosyl methionine (SAM-E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), melatonin, rhodiola rosea, valerian, chromium, creatine, and hypericum...
September 2014: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Tseng-Ting Kao, Chia-Yi Chu, Gang-Hui Lee, Tsun-Hsien Hsiao, Nai-Wei Cheng, Nan-Shan Chang, Bing-Hung Chen, Tzu-Fun Fu
Folate is a nutrient essential for the development, function and regeneration of nervous systems. Folate deficiency has been linked to many neurological disorders including neural tube defects in fetus and Alzheimer's diseases in the elderly. However, the etiology underlying these folate deficiency-associated diseases is not completely understood. In this study, zebrafish transgenic lines with timing and duration-controllable folate deficiency were developed by ectopically overexpressing a recombinant EGFP-γ-glutamyl hydrolase (γGH)...
November 2014: Neurobiology of Disease
Erin A McClure, Nathaniel L Baker, Cassandra D Gipson, Matthew J Carpenter, Amanda P Roper, Brett E Froeliger, Peter W Kalivas, Kevin M Gray
BACKGROUND: Varenicline (VAR) has demonstrated superior efficacy over other smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, though 50-60% of those treated do maintain abstinence. Some preclinical findings suggest that new nicotine dependence pharmacotherapies should target the glutamatergic system, given its demonstrated role in addiction. Attention has been given to N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which appears to restore normal glutamate signaling in animal models. It is possible that NAC and VAR may work in concert to promote abstinence at higher rates than with either medication alone...
January 2015: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giovanni Martinotti, Marco Di Nicola, Filippo Ruggeri, Gianluigi Conte, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2014: BioMed Research International
P Steullet, J H Cabungcal, A Monin, D Dwir, P O'Donnell, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Accumulating evidence points to altered GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and impaired myelin/axonal integrity in schizophrenia. Both findings could be due to abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories, affecting local neuronal networks and long-range synchrony and leading to cognitive deficits. In this review, we present data from animal models demonstrating that redox dysregulation, neuroinflammation and/or NMDAR hypofunction (as observed in patients) impairs the normal development of both parvalbumin interneurons and oligodendrocytes...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Yu-Wen Chen, Hui-Ching Lin, Ming-Chong Ng, Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Chao-Chuan Wang, Po-Wu Gean, Po See Chen
Autism-like phenotypes in male valproate (VPA)-exposed offspring have been linked to high glutamatergic neurotransmission in the thalamic-amygdala pathway. Glial cystine/glutamate exchange (system Xc(-)), which exchanges extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate, plays a significant role in the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cystine prodrug that restores extracellular glutamate by stimulating system Xc(-). In this study, we examined the effects of NAC on autism-like phenotypes and neurotransmission in the thalamic-amygdala synapses, as well as the involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGluR2/3)...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kenji Hashimoto
INTRODUCTION: Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, although the precise mechanisms are unknown. AREAS COVERED: The author examines the role of the NMDA receptor in schizophrenia, focusing on results from preclinical and clinical studies that support the NMDA receptor hypothesis of schizophrenia. The author first reviewed papers detailing alterations in the levels of endogenous substances such as glutamine, glutamate, d-serine, l-serine, kynurenic acid and glutathione (GSH), all of which can affect NMDA receptor function...
September 2014: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Sarah Marler, Kevin B Sanders, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2014: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
M Taylor, K Bhagwandas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: British Journal of Dermatology
Ana P Herrmann, Radharani Benvenutti, Luísa K Pilz, Elaine Elisabetsky
Treating individuals at risk to develop schizophrenia may be strategic to delay or prevent transition to psychosis. We verified the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. C57 mice were reared in isolation or social groups and treated with NAC from postnatal day 42-70; the locomotor response to amphetamine was assessed at postnatal day 81. NAC treatment in isolated mice prevented the hypersensitivity to amphetamine, suggesting neuroprotection relevant to striatal dopamine...
May 2014: Schizophrenia Research
S Rose, R E Frye, J Slattery, R Wynne, M Tippett, S Melnyk, S J James
There is an increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction and how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances such as oxidative stress. Reserve capacity is a measure of the ability of the mitochondria to respond to physiological stress. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
April 1, 2014: Translational Psychiatry
Reza Bavarsad Shahripour, Mark R Harrigan, Andrei V Alexandrov
BACKGROUND: There is an expanding field of research investigating the benefits of medicines with multiple mechanisms of action across neurological disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), widely known as an antidote to acetaminophen overdose, is now emerging as treatment of vascular and nonvascular neurological disorders. NAC as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione modulates glutamatergic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory pathways. AIM AND DISCUSSION: Most NAC studies up to date have been carried out in animal models of various neurological disorders with only a few studies completed in humans...
March 2014: Brain and Behavior
Elson Asevedo, Ana C Mendes, Michael Berk, Elisa Brietzke
OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first systematic literature review of clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of substance abuse disorders and addictive behaviors. METHODS: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria for the review were clinical trials that used NAC in the treatment of a disorder related to substance use and/or addictive behaviors, limited to texts in English, Spanish, or French. The selected studies were evaluated with respect to type of trial, sample size, diagnostic input, intervention, length of follow-up, outcome variables, and results...
April 2014: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Kathryn J Reissner, Cassandra D Gipson, Phuong K Tran, Lori A Knackstedt, Michael D Scofield, Peter W Kalivas
Both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may be useful in treating relapse to addictive drug use. Cocaine self-administration in rats reduces both cystine-glutamate exchange and glutamate transport via GLT-1 in the nucleus accumbens, and NAC treatment normalizes these two glial processes critical for maintaining glutamate homeostasis. However, it is not known if one or both of these actions by NAC is needed to inhibit relapse to cocaine seeking. To determine whether the restoration of GLT-1 and/or cystine-glutamate exchange is required for NAC to inhibit cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, we utilized the rat self-administration/extinction/reinstatement model of cocaine relapse...
March 2015: Addiction Biology
2014-08-21 05:03:25
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