Nur-Afidah Mohamed Suhaimi, Wai Min Phyo, Hao Yun Yap, Sharon Heng Yee Choy, Xiaona Wei, Yukti Choudhury, Wai Jin Tan, Luke Anthony Peng Yee Tan, Roger Sik Yin Foo, Suzanne Hui San Tan, Zenia Tiang, Chin Fong Wong, Poh Koon Koh, Min-Han Tan
There is increasing preclinical evidence suggesting that metformin, an antidiabetic drug, has anticancer properties against various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. However, the majority of evidence, which was derived from cancer cell lines and xenografts, was likely to overestimate the benefit of metformin because these models are inadequate and require supraphysiologic levels of metformin. Here, we generated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines from 2 colorectal cancer patients to assess the properties of metformin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the first-line drug treatment for colorectal cancer...
September 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Qiao-Li Wang, Giola Santoni, Eivind Ness-Jensen, Jesper Lagergren, Shao-Hua Xie
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal cancer is a highly fatal malignant neoplasm, with 2 etiologically different histological types. A large prospective study is expected to elucidate the specific risk of the 90% subtype of esophageal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), with metformin therapy. This study aims to determine the association between metformin use and incident ESCC risk. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study conducted in Sweden in 2005-2015...
January 2020: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Mark A Preston, Anders H Riis, Vera Ehrenstein, Rodney H Breau, Julie L Batista, Aria F Olumi, Lorelei A Mucci, Hans-Olov Adami, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Metformin may decrease prostate cancer (PCa) risk by reducing hyperinsulinemia-associated carcinogenesis or through direct effects on cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between metformin use and PCa diagnosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used the Danish Cancer Registry and the Aarhus University Prescription Database to conduct a nested case-control study among men residing in northern Denmark from 1989 to 2011...
December 2014: European Urology
Takuma Higurashi, Kunihiro Hosono, Hirokazu Takahashi, Yasuhiko Komiya, Shotaro Umezawa, Eiji Sakai, Takashi Uchiyama, Leo Taniguchi, Yasuo Hata, Shiori Uchiyama, Akiko Hattori, Hajime Nagase, Takaomi Kessoku, Jun Arimoto, Nobuyuki Matsuhashi, Yoshiaki Inayama, Shoji Yamanaka, Masataka Taguri, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of, and mortality from, colorectal cancer is increasing worldwide, and new strategies for prevention are needed to reduce the burden of this disease. The oral diabetes medicine metformin might have chemopreventive effects against cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, no clinical trial data exist for the use of metformin for colorectal cancer chemoprevention. Therefore, we devised a 1-year clinical trial to assess the safety and chemopreventive effects of metformin on sporadic colorectal cancer (assessed by adenoma and polyp recurrence) in patients with a high risk of adenoma recurrence...
April 2016: Lancet Oncology
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Cancer Communications (former title: Chinese Journal of Cancer) has published a series of important questions regarding cancer research and clinical oncology, to provide an enhanced stimulus for cancer research, and to accelerate collaborations between institutions and investigators. In this edition, the following 8 valuable questions are presented. Question 94. The origin of tumors: time for a new paradigm? Question 95. How can we accelerate the identification of biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma? Question 96...
November 26, 2018: Cancer Communications
C La Vecchia, E Negri, B D'Avanzo, S Franceschi
The relation between use of histamine-2-receptor (H2-receptor) antagonists and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a case-control study in northern Italy. 563 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed gastric cancer were compared with 1501 controls who did not have neoplastic or gastrointestinal disorders. 36 (6.3%) cases and 59 (3.3%) controls had used H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine or ranitidine). The relative risk (RR) for ever-use was 1.8 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.2, 2.7). The increased risk was restricted to patients who had started treatment with H2-receptor antagonists within 5 years of the diagnosis of stomach cancer (RR 3...
August 11, 1990: Lancet
Teng Zeng, William A Mitch
The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses...
June 2016: Carcinogenesis
Krishnan Bhaskaran, Ian Douglas, Stephen Evans, Tjeerd van Staa, Liam Smeeth
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is an association between use of angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of cancer. DESIGN: Cohort study of risk of cancer in people treated with angiotensin receptor blockers compared with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Effects were explored with time updated covariates in Cox models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and metformin/insulin use, hypertension, heart failure, statin use, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking, and calendar year...
April 24, 2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Zosia Kmietowicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2016: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Helen G Coleman, Shivaram K Bhat, Liam J Murray, Damian T McManus, Orla M O'Neill, Anna T Gavin, Brian T Johnston
OBJECTIVES: Risk stratification of Barrett's esophagus (BE) patients based on clinical and endoscopic features may help to optimize surveillance practice for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. The aim of this study was to investigate patient symptoms and endoscopic features at index endoscopy and risk of neoplastic progression in a large population-based cohort of BE patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of hospital records relating to incident BE diagnosis was conducted in a subset of patients with specialized intestinal metaplasia from the Northern Ireland BE register...
April 2014: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Michael F Vaezi, Peter J Kahrilas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2013: Gastroenterology
Katie S Nason, Promporn Paula Wichienkuer, Omar Awais, Matthew J Schuchert, James D Luketich, Robert W O'Rourke, John G Hunter, Cynthia D Morris, Blair A Jobe
HYPOTHESIS: Screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma has focused on identifying Barrett esophagus (BE) in patients with severe, long-standing symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Unfortunately, 95% of patients who develop esophageal adenocarcinoma are unaware of the presence of BE before their cancer diagnosis, which means they never had been selected for screening. One possible explanation is that no correlation exists between the severity of GERD symptoms and cancer risk...
July 2011: Archives of Surgery
F Hvid-Jensen, L Pedersen, P Funch-Jensen, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may potentially modify and decrease the risk for development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus (BO). AIM: To investigate if the intensity and adherence of PPI use among all patients with BO in Denmark affected the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: We performed a nationwide case-control study in Denmark among 9883 patients with a new diagnosis of BO. All incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas and high-grade dysplasias were identified, and risk ratios were estimated on the basis of prior use of PPIs...
May 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kerry B Dunbar, Rhonda F Souza, Stuart J Spechler
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may protect against carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus because they eliminate the chronic esophageal inflammation of reflux esophagitis, and because they decrease esophageal exposure to acid, which can cause cancer-promoting DNA damage and increase proliferation in Barrett's metaplasia. Most clinical studies of PPIs and cancer development in Barrett's esophagus have found a cancer-protective effect for these drugs, although there are some contradictory data. Chemoprevention of dysplasia and cancer in Barrett's esophagus with PPIs appears to be cost-effective, and the indirect evidence supporting a cancer-protective role for PPIs is strong enough to warrant PPI treatment of virtually all patients with Barrett's esophagus...
June 2015: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Sarah E R Bailey, Obi C Ukoumunne, Elizabeth Shephard, Willie Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Although the association between raised platelet count (thrombocytosis) and cancer has been reported in primary and secondary care studies, UK GPs are unaware of it, and it is insufficiently evidenced for laboratories to identify and warn of it. This systematic review aimed to identify and collate evidence from studies that have investigated thrombocytosis as an early marker of cancer in primary care. METHODS: EMBASE (OvidSP), Medline (Ovid), Web of Science and The Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies...
February 2017: Family Practice
Nicholas J Shaheen, Gary W Falk, Prasad G Iyer, Lauren B Gerson
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is among the most common conditions encountered by the gastroenterologist. In this document, the American College of Gastroenterology updates its guidance for the best practices in caring for these patients. These guidelines continue to endorse screening of high-risk patients for BE; however, routine screening is limited to men with reflux symptoms and multiple other risk factors. Acknowledging recent data on the low risk of malignant progression in patients with nondysplastic BE, endoscopic surveillance intervals are attenuated in this population; patients with nondysplastic BE should undergo endoscopic surveillance no more frequently than every 3-5 years...
January 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Cathy Bennett, Paul Moayyedi, Douglas A Corley, John DeCaestecker, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Gary Falk, Nimish Vakil, Scott Sanders, Michael Vieth, John Inadomi, David Aldulaimi, Khek-Yu Ho, Robert Odze, Stephen J Meltzer, Eamonn Quigley, Stuart Gittens, Peter Watson, Giovanni Zaninotto, Prasad G Iyer, Leo Alexandre, Yeng Ang, James Callaghan, Rebecca Harrison, Rajvinder Singh, Pradeep Bhandari, Raf Bisschops, Bita Geramizadeh, Philip Kaye, Sheila Krishnadath, M Brian Fennerty, Hendrik Manner, Katie S Nason, Oliver Pech, Vani Konda, Krish Ragunath, Imdadur Rahman, Yvonne Romero, Richard Sampliner, Peter D Siersema, Jan Tack, Tony C K Tham, Nigel Trudgill, David S Weinberg, Jean Wang, Kenneth Wang, Jennie Y Y Wong, Stephen Attwood, Peter Malfertheiner, David MacDonald, Hugh Barr, Mark K Ferguson, Janusz Jankowski
OBJECTIVES: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a common premalignant lesion for which surveillance is recommended. This strategy is limited by considerable variations in clinical practice. We conducted an international, multidisciplinary, systematic search and evidence-based review of BE and provided consensus recommendations for clinical use in patients with nondysplastic, indefinite, and low-grade dysplasia (LGD). METHODS: We defined the scope, proposed statements, and searched electronic databases, yielding 20,558 publications that were screened, selected online, and formed the evidence base...
May 2015: American Journal of Gastroenterology
John F Forbes, Ivana Sestak, Anthony Howell, Bernardo Bonanni, Nigel Bundred, Christelle Levy, Gunter von Minckwitz, Wolfgang Eiermann, Patrick Neven, Michael Stierer, Chris Holcombe, Robert E Coleman, Louise Jones, Ian Ellis, Jack Cuzick
BACKGROUND: Third-generation aromatase inhibitors are more effective than tamoxifen for preventing recurrence in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive invasive breast cancer. However, it is not known whether anastrozole is more effective than tamoxifen for women with hormone-receptor-positive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Here, we compare the efficacy of anastrozole with that of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive DCIS. METHODS: In a double-blind, multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women who had been diagnosed with locally excised, hormone-receptor-positive DCIS...
February 27, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2016: American Family Physician
2016-07-02 15:54:09
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