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Molecular biology

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18 papers 0 to 25 followers Associate with diabetes
By Lifuer Ku Love fashion, traveling
Ele Ferrannini
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 371, Issue 16, Page 1547-1548, October 2014.
October 16, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Catia Traversari, Silvano Sozzani, Knut R Steffensen, Vincenzo Russo
Oxysterols are involved in maintaining cellular cholesterol levels. Recently, oxysterols have been demonstrated to modulate the function of immune cells and tumor growth. These effects can be dependent on the activation of the oxysterol-binding liver X receptors (LXRs) or, as recently demonstrated for T and B cells, DCs and neutrophils, can be independent of LXR activation. LXR-dependent oxysterol effects can be ascribed to the activation of LXRα, LXRβ or LXRαβ isoforms, which induces transcriptional activation or trans-repression of target genes...
July 2014: European Journal of Immunology
Tomonori Ishikawa, Ivan S Yuhanna, Junko Umetani, Wan-Ru Lee, Kenneth S Korach, Philip W Shaul, Michihisa Umetani
Liver X receptors (LXR) are stimulated by cholesterol-derived oxysterols and serve as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in response to alterations in cholesterol. In the present study, we investigated the role of LXRs in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and discovered that LXRβ has nonnuclear function and stimulates EC migration by activating endothelial NOS (eNOS). This process is mediated by estrogen receptor-α (ERα). LXR activation promoted the direct binding of LXRβ to the ligand-binding domain of ERα and initiated an extranuclear signaling cascade that requires ERα Ser118 phosphorylation by PI3K/AKT...
August 2013: Journal of Clinical Investigation
A C Beynen, M J Geelen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1982: Endocrinologia Experimentalis
Tsugumichi Saito, Eijiro Yamada, Shuichi Okada, Yoko Shimoda, Yuko Tagaya, Koshi Hashimoto, Tetsurou Satoh, Masatomo Mori, Junichi Okada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Masanobu Yamada
The physiology of insulin signaling under normal and disease conditions is well studied in classical insulin target tissues, but not in podocytes. To examine insulin stimulation of podocyte GLUT4 translocation, we established a protocol involving treatment with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate to induce E11 podocyte differentiation within 48 hours rather than 7-10 days, which is required for differentiation under the reported protocol. This allowed us to transiently introduce GLUT4 reporter cDNA and RNAi and thereby to examine the regulatory pathway involved...
2014: Endocrine Journal
Wataru Nishimura, Hisashi Oishi, Nobuaki Funahashi, Toshiyoshi Fujiwara, Satoru Takahashi, Kazuki Yasuda
MafA and MafB are basic leucine zipper transcription factors expressed in mature pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. MafA is not only an insulin gene transcription factor but is also critical for the maturation and maintenance of β-cell function, whereas MafB is expressed in immature β-cells during development and in compromised β-cells in diabetes. In this study, we developed a mouse model to easily trace the promoter activity of MafA in β-cells as a tool for studying β-cell differentiation, maturation, regeneration and function using the expression of the fluorescent protein Kusabira Orange (KOr) driven by the BAC-mafA promoter...
2015: Endocrine Journal
Karin Zibar, Kristina Blaslov, Tomislav Bulum, Jadranka Knežević Ćuća, Lea Smirčić-Duvnjak
Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) appears to have an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF-21 secretion is mainly determined by nutritional status. The aim of this study was to measure basal and postprandial FGF-21 and postprandial change of FGF-21 concentration in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients and in healthy controls, and to investigate the differences between the groups. The cross-sectional study included 30 C-peptide negative T1DM patients, median age 37 years (20-59), disease duration 22 years (3-45), and nine healthy controls, median age 30 years (27-47)...
April 2015: Endocrine
Jiayue Yang, Ling Li, Dimitri Raptis, Xiaoshan Li, Fengfei Li, Bijun Chen, Jiajia He, Rolf Graf, Zilin Sun
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has insulin resistance (IR) or reduced β-cell mass, partially due to an increased β-cell apoptosis rate. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) is a secretory protein produced in the pancreas and up-regulated dramatically during pancreatic disease. Recent studies revealed that β-cells undergoing apoptosis induce PSP/reg expression in surviving neighboring cells. Further experiments demonstrated that PSP/reg was elevated during disease progression in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
April 2015: Endocrine
Juliana Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Eswar Kumar Nadendla, Daniela Lima, Keely Pierzchalski, Jace W Jones, Maureen Kane, Jun-Ichi Nishikawa, Youhei Hiromori, Tsuyoshi Nakanishi, Miguel M Santos, L Filipe C Castro, William Bourguet, Michael Schubert, Vincent Laudet
Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor...
November 2014: Endocrinology
Paul M Ridker
Lifelong exposure to raised concentrations of LDL cholesterol increases cardiovascular event rates, and the use of statin therapy as an adjunct to diet, exercise, and smoking cessation has proven highly effective in reducing the population burden associated with hyperlipidaemia. Yet, despite consistent biological, genetic, and epidemiological data, and evidence from randomised trials, there is controversy among national guidelines and clinical practice with regard to LDL cholesterol, its measurement, the usefulness of population-based screening, the net benefit-to-risk ratio for different LDL-lowering drugs, the benefit of treatment targets, and whether aggressive lowering of LDL is safe...
August 16, 2014: Lancet
Daniel J Rader, G Kees Hovingh
The cholesterol contained within HDL is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease and is a key component of predicting cardiovascular risk. However, despite its properties consistent with atheroprotection, the causal relation between HDL and atherosclerosis is uncertain. Human genetics and failed clinical trials have created scepticism about the HDL hypothesis. Nevertheless, drugs that raise HDL-C concentrations, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, are in late-stage clinical development, and other approaches that promote HDL function, including reverse cholesterol transport, are in early-stage clinical development...
August 16, 2014: Lancet
Jun Ho Kim, Hyung Taek Cho, Young Jun Kim
Adipose tissue is an organ with active endocrine function involved in the regulation of energy balance and glucose homeostasis via multiple metabolic signaling pathways targeting the brain, liver, skeletal muscle, pancreas, and other organs. There is increasing evidence demonstrating that the female sex hormone, estrogen, regulates adipose development and improves systemic glucose homeostasis in both males and females. The underlying mechanism linking estrogenic regulation in adipose tissue and systemic glucose metabolism has not been fully elucidated, but is thought to include interactions of estrogen receptor signaling events involving lipolytic and/or lipogenic enzyme activity, free fatty acid metabolism, and adipocytokine production...
2014: Endocrine Journal
Frank Claessens, Wayne Tilley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Endocrine-related Cancer
Paul Lee, Michael M Swarbrick, Ken K Y Ho
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in energy homeostasis and thermogenesis in animals, conferring protection against diet-induced obesity and hypothermia through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Recent metabolic imaging studies using positron emission tomography computerized tomography (PET-CT) scanning have serendipitously revealed significant depots of BAT in the cervical-supraclavicular regions, demonstrating persistence of BAT beyond infancy. Subsequent cold-stimulated PET-CT studies and direct histological examination of adipose tissues have demonstrated that BAT is highly prevalent in adult humans...
June 2013: Endocrine Reviews
Sofie Vandevyver, Lien Dejager, Claude Libert
Glucocorticoids are among the most prescribed drugs worldwide for the treatment of numerous immune and inflammatory disorders. They exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. There are several GR isoforms resulting from alternative RNA splicing and translation initiation of the GR transcript. Additionally, these isoforms are all subject to several transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational modifications, all of which affect the protein's stability and/or function...
August 2014: Endocrine Reviews
Sakarat N Pramojanee, Mattabhorn Phimphilai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Insulin and its downstream signaling pathway are indispensable for postnatal bone growth and turnover by having influence on both osteoblast and osteoclast development. Insulin signaling regulates both bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts; however, the regulation occurs mainly through the insulin signaling pathway within osteoblasts. An impairment of osteoblastic insulin signaling leads to an impaired bone quality by affecting osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and survival...
2014: Endocrine Research
Alireza Esteghamati, Solmaz Asnafi, Mohammad Eslamian, Sina Noshad, Manouchehr Nakhjavani
BACKGROUND: Small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The proposed atherogenic properties of hypoadiponectinemia might be mediated through increased sd-LDL. In this study, the associations of sd-LDL with cardiovascular and other complications of diabetes, and also with plasma levels of adiponectin, were investigated in diabetic patients. METHODS: 173 patients, with documented type 2 diabetes mellitus, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
2015: Endocrine Research
J Jurcovicova
Glucose is transported across the cell membrane by specific saturable transport system, which includes two types of glucose transporters: 1) sodium dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs) which transport glucose against its concentration gradient and 2) sodium independent glucose transporters (GLUTs), which transport glucose by facilitative diffusion in its concentration gradient. In the brain, both types of transporters are present with different function, affinity, capacity, and tissue distribution. GLUT1 occurs in brain in two isoforms...
January 2014: Endocrine Regulations
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