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Intensive Care Unit

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8 papers 25 to 100 followers
Jeffrey D DellaVolpe, Jeffrey M Garavaglia, David T Huang
The management of critically ill patients with end-stage liver disease can be challenging due to the vulnerability of this population and the wide-ranging complications of the disease. This review proposes an approach based on the major organ systems affected, to provide a framework for managing the most common complications. Although considerable practice variation exists, a focus on the evidence behind the most common practices will ensure the development of the optimal skillset to appropriately manage this disease...
February 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Mohammed Al-Jaghbeer, John A Kellum
Acid-base disturbances are very common in critically ill and injured patients as well as contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders is vital to their proper management. This review will discuss the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of acid-base disturbances in intensive care patients--with particular attention to evidence from recent studies examining the effects of fluid resuscitation on acid-base and its consequences.
July 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Lyndal Russell, Anthony S McLean
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The characteristics of an ideal intravenous fluid in the critically ill patient are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Intravenous fluids are the most frequent drug administered to patients. Questioning the use of commonly administered intravenous fluids has resulted in an increased focus on their efficacy and safety. Discrimination between fluids currently in use has been the central theme of many recent large studies, and emerging from these findings is an understanding of characteristics that would make for an ideal fluid for critically ill patients...
August 2014: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Ryan Zarychanski, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Alexis F Turgeon, Brett L Houston, Lauralyn McIntyre, John C Marshall, Dean A Fergusson
IMPORTANCE: Hydroxyethyl starch is commonly used for volume resuscitation yet has been associated with serious adverse events, including acute kidney injury and death. Clinical trials of hydroxyethyl starch are conflicting. Moreover, multiple trials from one investigator have been retracted because of scientific misconduct. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of hydroxyethyl starch use with mortality and acute kidney injury. DATA SOURCES: Randomized controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Global Health, HealthStar, Scopus, Web of Science, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to October 2012), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature...
February 20, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Paul E Marik
Current teaching and guidelines suggest that aggressive fluid resuscitation is the best initial approach to the patient with hemodynamic instability. The source of this wisdom is difficult to discern, however, Early Goal Directed therapy (EGDT) as championed by Rivers et al. and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines appears to have established this as the irrefutable truth. However, over the last decade it has become clear that aggressive fluid resuscitation leading to fluid overload is associated with increased morbidity and mortality across a diverse group of patients, including patients with severe sepsis as well as elective surgical and trauma patients and those with pancreatitis...
2014: Annals of Intensive Care
Andrew Davenport, Jawad Ahmad, Ali Al-Khafaji, John A Kellum, Yuri S Genyk, Mitra K Nadim
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as the occurrence of renal dysfunction in a patient with end-stage liver cirrhosis in the absence of another identifiable cause of renal failure. The prognosis of HRS remains poor, with a median survival without liver transplantation of <6 months. However, understanding the pathogenesis of HRS has led to the introduction of treatments designed to increase renal perfusion and mean arterial blood pressure using vasopressors and albumin, which has led to improvement in renal function in ∼50% of patients...
January 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Arun Krishnamoorthy, G Michael Felker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fluid removal and relief of congestion are central to treatment of acute heart failure. Diuretics have been the decongestive mainstay but their known limitations have led to the exploration of alternative strategies. This review compares diuretics with ultrafiltration and examines the recent evidence evaluating their use. RECENT FINDINGS: Relevant recent studies are the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation trial (of diuretics) and the Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (of ultrafiltration)...
October 2014: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Benjamin de Witt, Raj Joshi, Harvey Meislin, Jarrod M Mosier
BACKGROUND: Assessing volume responsiveness, defined as an increase in cardiac index after infusion of fluids, is important when caring for critically ill patients in septic shock, as both under- and over-resuscitation can worsen outcomes. This review article describes the currently available methods of assessing volume responsiveness for critically ill patients in the emergency department, with a focus on patients in septic shock. OBJECTIVE: The single-pump model of the circulation utilizing cardiac-filling pressures is reviewed in detail...
November 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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