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R Gutiérrez-González, G R Boto, A Pérez-Zamarrón
Hydrocephalus is a common neurosurgical disease affecting approximately 40 per 100,000 people. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion devices are essential in the management of this pathology. These devices include internal shunts and external ventricular drains. Infection is the most significant complication resulting from the high frequency of appearance and the consequences it involves, since it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It also involves increased hospital costs (approximately 40,000 euro per episode)...
June 2012: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Irene S Kourbeti, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses...
February 2014: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
O Sneh-Arbib, A Shiferstein, N Dagan, S Fein, L Telem, E Muchtar, N Eliakim-Raz, B Rubinovitch, G Rubin, Z H Rappaport, M Paul
Neurosurgery is characterized by a prolonged risk period for surgical site infection (SSI), mainly related to the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains. We aimed to examine factors associated with post-neurosurgical SSIs, focusing on post-operative factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a single center over a period of 18 months in Israel. Included were adult patients undergoing clean or clean-contaminated craniotomy, including craniotomies with external CSF drainage or shunts. SSIs were defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for healthcare-associated infections...
December 2013: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Joanna Y Wang, Anubhav G Amin, George I Jallo, Edward S Ahn
OBJECT: The most common neurosurgical condition observed in preterm infants is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), which often results in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). These conditions portend an unfavorable prognosis; therefore, the potential for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes necessitates a better understanding of the comparative effectiveness of 2 temporary devices commonly used before the permanent insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt: the ventricular reservoir and the ventriculosubgaleal shunt (VSGS)...
November 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Muhammad Omar Chohan, Omar S Akbik, Juan Ramos-Canseco, Pedro M Ramirez, Cristina Murray-Krezan, Tracey Berlin, Kim Olin, Christopher L Taylor, Howard Yonas
BACKGROUND: Multimodal intracranial monitoring in the neurosurgical patient requires insertion of probes through multiple craniostomies. OBJECTIVE: To report our 5-year experience with a novel device allowing multimodal monitoring though a single twist-drill hole. METHODS: All devices (Hummingbird Synergy, Innerspace) were placed at the Kocher point between 2008 and 2013 at our institution. An independent clinical research nurse prospectively collected data on all bedside placements...
September 2014: Neurosurgery
N Al Shirawi, Z A Memish, A Cherfan, A Al Shimemeri
Intrathecal colistin (Polymxin E) is becoming an important option for the treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. We report a case of 28-year-old man who developed meningitis due to MDR A. baumannii associated with an external ventricular drain. The patient was cured using a 4-week course of intrathecal colistin 3.2 mg via external ventricular drain (EVD) daily without any serious side effects.
October 2006: Journal of Chemotherapy
Luis Patricio Maskin, Federico Capparelli, Andrea Mora, Alejandro Hlavnicka, Nora Orellana, Maria Fernanda Díaz, Néstor Wainsztein, Marcelo Del Castillo
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis between post-neurosurgical bacterial meningitis (PNBM) and aseptic meningitis is difficult. Inflammatory and biochemical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes mimic those classically observed after CNS surgery. CSF lactate assay has therefore been proposed as a useful PNBM marker. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CSF lactate as a PNBM marker in patients hospitalized after a neurosurgical procedure. METHODS: Between July 2005 and June 2009, a prospective clinical study, in which all patients with clinical suspicion of PNBM were enrolled, was conducted at our neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit...
September 2013: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Antonio Vena, Marco Falcone, Emma Comandini, Marcello Meledandri, Andrea Novelli, Floriana Campanile, Stefania Stefani, Mario Venditti
Post-neurosurgical infection is a serious complication that occurs in approx. 4% of all patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates and prolonged length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), are the most frequent pathogens involved in CNS post-neurosurgical meningitis. Treatment is challenging especially in patients with meningitis due to multidrug- resistant (MDR) CONS...
May 2013: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Zaw Min, John W Baddley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Christopher Akolo, Ifedayo Adetifa, Sasha Shepperd, Jimmy Volmink
BACKGROUND: Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at an increased risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). It is known that treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), also referred to as TB preventive therapy or chemoprophylaxis, helps to prevent progression to active disease in HIV negative populations. However, the extent and magnitude of protection (if any) associated with preventive therapy in those infected with HIV should be quantified. This present study is an update of the original review...
January 20, 2010: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Dick Menzies, Hamdan Al Jahdali, Badriah Al Otaibi
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) can be detected with immune based tests such as the tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assays (IGRA). Therapy for those with positive tests can reduce the subsequent risk of re-activation and development of active TB. Current standard therapy is isoniazid (INH) which reduce the risk of active TB by as much as 90 per cent if taken daily for 9 months. However, this lengthy duration of therapy discourages patients, and the risk of serious adverse events such as hepatotoxicity, discourages both patients and providers...
March 2011: Indian Journal of Medical Research
V Niranjan, A Malini
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Recent studies suggest an increasing antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI). We undertook this study to know the resistance pattern of E. coli causing UTI in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in north India, and to know the treatment given and response of the patients. METHODS: The details of E. coli grown from urine samples and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern were collected from the laboratory registers and the patient details were collected from the case records...
June 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Hong Foo, Mathew Chater, Michael Maley, Sebastiaan J van Hal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yvonne Achermann, Ellie J C Goldstein, Tom Coenye, Mark E Shirtliff
Propionibacterium acnes is known primarily as a skin commensal. However, it can present as an opportunistic pathogen via bacterial seeding to cause invasive infections such as implant-associated infections. These infections have gained more attention due to improved diagnostic procedures, such as sonication of explanted foreign materials and prolonged cultivation time of up to 14 days for periprosthetic biopsy specimens, and improved molecular methods, such as broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR. Implant-associated infections caused by P...
July 2014: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Céline M O'Gorman, Hubert T Fuller, Paul S Dyer
Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic fungus whose spores are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. It is also an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, causing potentially lethal invasive infections, and is associated with severe asthma and sinusitis. The species is only known to reproduce by asexual means, but there has been accumulating evidence for recombination and gene flow from population genetic studies, genome analysis, the presence of mating-type genes and expression of sex-related genes in the fungus...
January 22, 2009: Nature
Anastácio Q Sousa, Margarida M L Pompeu, Mércia S Frutuoso, José W O Lima, Juliana M B M Tinel, Richard D Pearson
A modified imprint method, Press-Imprint-Smear, was compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Amastigotes were seen in 69 (92%) of 75 individuals in one or both assays. The Press-Imprint-Smear was positive in 85.3%, and histopathology was positive in 44%. Press-Imprint-Smear is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
November 2014: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kyle Mikals, Jennifer Masel, Todd Gleeson
Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts.
October 2014: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Christian Teh-Poot, Evelyn Tzec-Arjona, Pedro Martínez-Vega, Maria Jesus Ramirez-Sierra, Miguel Rosado-Vallado, Eric Dumonteil
Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and activation of CD8(+) T cells is crucial for a protective immune response. Therefore, the identification of antigens with major histocompatibility complex class I epitopes is a crucial step for vaccine development against T. cruzi. Our aim was to identify novel antigens and epitopes by immunoinformatics analysis of the parasite proteome (12 969 proteins) and to validate their immunotherapeutic potential in infected mice. We identified 172 predicted epitopes, using NetMHC and RANKPEP...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefan David Baral, M Reuel Friedman, Scott Geibel, Kevin Rebe, Borche Bozhinov, Daouda Diouf, Keith Sabin, Claire E Holland, Roy Chan, Carlos F Cáceres
Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead...
January 17, 2015: Lancet
Sharon R Lewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
2014-08-14 12:42:47
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