Akira Morimoto, Yozo Nakazawa, Eiichi Ishii
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome that is classified into primary and secondary HLH. Primary HLH consists of monogenic disorders that mainly affect the perforin-mediated cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Secondary HLH occurs as a complication in various settings such as infection, malignancy, autoimmune disease, and post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Both primary and secondary HLH are characterized by uncontrolled hypercytokinemia that results in myelosuppression and vascular endothelium damage...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Robert P Baughman, Daniel A Culver, Marc A Judson
This is an update on sarcoidosis, focusing on etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. In the area of etiopathogenesis, we now have a better understanding of the immune response that leads to the disease as well as genetic factors that modify both the risk for the disease and its clinical outcome. Several groups have also identified possible agents as a cause for sarcoidosis. Although none of these potential causes has been definitely confirmed, there is increasing evidence to support that one or more infectious agents may cause sarcoidosis, although this organism may no longer be viable in the patient...
March 1, 2011: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Daniel Gotthardt, Carina Riediger, Karl Heinz Weiss, Jens Encke, Peter Schemmer, Jan Schmidt, Peter Sauer
Fulminant hepatic failure is characterized by the development of severe liver injury with impaired synthetic capacity and encephalopathy in patients with previous normal liver or at least well compensated liver disease. The etiology of fulminant hepatic failure refers to a wide variety of causes, of which toxin-induced or viral hepatitis are most common. In spite of specific therapeutic options in distinctive etiologies, orthotopic liver transplantation is the only therapy proven to improve patient survival in the majority of patients...
September 2007: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Guilermo E Umpierez
Many patients admitted to the hospital have diabetes mellitus-diagnosed or undiagnosed-and others develop hyperglycemia from the stress of hospitalization. This paper discusses the prevalence, outcomes, and evidence for best management of hyperglycemia and diabetes in hospitalized patients outside the critical care setting.
June 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Jill Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2014: JAMA
Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Jaime Bosch, Andrew K Burroughs
Cirrhosis is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in more developed countries, being the 14th most common cause of death worldwide but fourth in central Europe. Increasingly, cirrhosis has been seen to be not a single disease entity, but one that can be subclassified into distinct clinical prognostic stages, with 1-year mortality ranging from 1% to 57% depending on the stage. We review the current understanding of cirrhosis as a dynamic process and outline current therapeutic options for prevention and treatment of complications of cirrhosis, on the basis of the subclassification in clinical stages...
May 17, 2014: Lancet
Dominique Valeyre, Antje Prasse, Hilario Nunes, Yurdagul Uzunhan, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Joachim Müller-Quernheim
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause that is characterised by the formation of immune granulomas in various organs, mainly the lungs and the lymphatic system. Studies show that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in individuals who are genetically susceptible. Several new insights have been made, particularly with regards to the diagnosis and care of some important manifestations of sarcoidosis. The indications for endobronchial ultrasound in diagnosis and for PET in the assessment of inflammatory activity are now better specified...
March 29, 2014: Lancet
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