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Nutrition

MH Residency - Sports Nutrition

https://read.qxmd.com/read/16166564/fast-food-central-nervous-system-insulin-resistance-and-obesity
#21
REVIEW
Elvira Isganaitis, Robert H Lustig
Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite...
December 2005: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24864135/evidence-based-recommendations-for-natural-bodybuilding-contest-preparation-nutrition-and-supplementation
#22
REVIEW
Eric R Helms, Alan A Aragon, Peter J Fitschen
The popularity of natural bodybuilding is increasing; however, evidence-based recommendations for it are lacking. This paper reviewed the scientific literature relevant to competition preparation on nutrition and supplementation, resulting in the following recommendations. Caloric intake should be set at a level that results in bodyweight losses of approximately 0.5 to 1%/wk to maximize muscle retention. Within this caloric intake, most but not all bodybuilders will respond best to consuming 2.3-3.1 g/kg of lean body mass per day of protein, 15-30% of calories from fat, and the reminder of calories from carbohydrate...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25663250/performance-enhancing-substances-in-sports-a-review-of-the-literature
#23
REVIEW
Amit Momaya, Marc Fawal, Reed Estes
Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31%. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. With recent advances in technology, gene doping is also becoming more conceivable...
April 2015: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25694219/the-freiburg-sport-therapy-program-for-eating-disordered-outpatients-a-pilot-study
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sabine Schlegel, Armin Hartmann, Reinhard Fuchs, Almut Zeeck
PURPOSE: Many patients with anorexia or bulimia nervosa use physical activity as a method to influence weight and shape and/or exercise in a compulsive manner. This form of exercising is associated with a more severe illness and higher relapse rates. In a proof-of-concept study, effects of a newly developed sport therapy program aiming to reduce unhealthy exercising were assessed. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with eating disorders took part in four group terms of the program, each lasting 3 months...
September 2015: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25320185/dietary-protein-requirement-of-female-adults-65-years-determined-by-the-indicator-amino-acid-oxidation-technique-is-higher-than-current-recommendations
#25
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mahroukh Rafii, Karen Chapman, Jillian Owens, Rajavel Elango, Wayne W Campbell, Ronald O Ball, Paul B Pencharz, Glenda Courtney-Martin
BACKGROUND: Studies on protein requirements in vulnerable groups such as older adults are few, and results are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirements of free-living women >65 y by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein. METHODS: Twelve subjects participated in the study, with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2...
January 2015: Journal of Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25355184/nutrition-for-training-and-performance
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/23363498/myths-presumptions-and-facts-about-obesity
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Krista Casazza, Kevin R Fontaine, Arne Astrup, Leann L Birch, Andrew W Brown, Michelle M Bohan Brown, Nefertiti Durant, Gareth Dutton, E Michael Foster, Steven B Heymsfield, Kerry McIver, Tapan Mehta, Nir Menachemi, P K Newby, Russell Pate, Barbara J Rolls, Bisakha Sen, Daniel L Smith, Diana M Thomas, David B Allison
BACKGROUND: Many beliefs about obesity persist in the absence of supporting scientific evidence (presumptions); some persist despite contradicting evidence (myths). The promulgation of unsupported beliefs may yield poorly informed policy decisions, inaccurate clinical and public health recommendations, and an unproductive allocation of research resources and may divert attention away from useful, evidence-based information. METHODS: Using Internet searches of popular media and scientific literature, we identified, reviewed, and classified obesity-related myths and presumptions...
January 31, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25169440/the-effects-of-protein-supplements-on-muscle-mass-strength-and-aerobic-and-anaerobic-power-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review
#28
REVIEW
Stefan M Pasiakos, Tom M McLellan, Harris R Lieberman
BACKGROUND: Protein supplements are frequently consumed by athletes and recreationally active adults to achieve greater gains in muscle mass and strength and improve physical performance. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the literature that tested the hypothesis that protein supplements accelerate gains in muscle mass and strength resulting in improvements in aerobic and anaerobic power. Evidence statements were created based on an accepted strength of recommendation taxonomy...
January 2015: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24119980/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplements-on-bone-mineral-density-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#29
REVIEW
Ian R Reid, Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey
BACKGROUND: Findings from recent meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation without co-administration of calcium have not shown fracture prevention, possibly because of insufficient power or inappropriate doses, or because the intervention was not targeted to deficient populations. Despite these data, almost half of older adults (older than 50 years) continue to use these supplements. Bone mineral density can be used to detect biologically significant effects in much smaller cohorts. We investigated whether vitamin D supplementation affects bone mineral density...
January 11, 2014: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24861453/low-carbohydrate-diets-for-athletes-what-evidence
#30
EDITORIAL
Timothy Noakes, Jeff S Volek, Stephen D Phinney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2014: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/25053925/a-randomised-trial-of-pre-exercise-meal-composition-on-performance-and-muscle-damage-in-well-trained-basketball-players
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hannah Lonika Gentle, Thomas Darrell Love, Anna Susan Howe, Katherine Elizabeth Black
BACKGROUND: Attenuating muscle damage is important to subsequent sports performance. It is possible that pre-exercise protein intake could influence markers of muscle damage and benefit performance, however, published research provides conflicting results. At present no study has investigated protein and carbohydrate (PRO/CHO) co-ingestion solely pre-exercise, nor prior to basketball-specific exercise. The purpose of this study was to answer the research question; would pre-exercise protein intake enhance performance or attenuate muscle damage during a basketball simulation test? METHODS: Ten well-trained male basketball players consumed either carbohydrate (1 g · kg(-1) body mass) with protein (1 g · kg(-1) body mass), or carbohydrate alone (2 g · kg(-1) body mass) in a randomised cross- over design, 90 minutes before completing an 87-minute exercise protocol...
2014: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/23169676/the-roles-of-vitamin-d-in-skeletal-muscle-form-function-and-metabolism
#32
REVIEW
Christian M Girgis, Roderick J Clifton-Bligh, Mark W Hamrick, Michael F Holick, Jenny E Gunton
Beyond its established role in bone and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D exerts a range of effects in skeletal muscle. Reports of profound muscle weakness and changes in the muscle morphology of adults with vitamin D deficiency have long been described. These reports have been supplemented by numerous trials assessing the impact of vitamin D on muscle strength and mass and falls in predominantly elderly and deficient populations. At a basic level, animal models have confirmed that vitamin D deficiency and congenital aberrations in the vitamin D endocrine system may result in muscle weakness...
February 2013: Endocrine Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/23493539/fructose-it-s-alcohol-without-the-buzz
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Robert H Lustig
What do the Atkins Diet and the traditional Japanese diet have in common? The Atkins Diet is low in carbohydrate and usually high in fat; the Japanese diet is high in carbohydrate and usually low in fat. Yet both work to promote weight loss. One commonality of both diets is that they both eliminate the monosaccharide fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) and its synthetic sister high fructose corn syrup consist of 2 molecules, glucose and fructose. Glucose is the molecule that when polymerized forms starch, which has a high glycemic index, generates an insulin response, and is not particularly sweet...
March 1, 2013: Advances in Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24791922/is-there-a-need-for-protein-ingestion-during-exercise
#34
REVIEW
Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strategy to enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to each exercise session by extending the window of opportunity during which the muscle protein synthetic response is facilitated...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24791919/gastrointestinal-complaints-during-exercise-prevalence-etiology-and-nutritional-recommendations
#35
REVIEW
Erick Prado de Oliveira, Roberto Carlos Burini, Asker Jeukendrup
Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50% of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24791916/exercise-nutrition-and-the-brain
#36
REVIEW
Romain Meeusen
Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and can improve cognitive function. Exercise has been promoted as a possible prevention for neurodegenerative diseases. Exercise will have a positive influence on cognition and it increases the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin. Several dietary components have been identified as having effects on cognitive abilities. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24791914/a-step-towards-personalized-sports-nutrition-carbohydrate-intake-during-exercise
#37
REVIEW
Asker Jeukendrup
There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24791913/sleep-in-elite-athletes-and-nutritional-interventions-to-enhance-sleep
#38
REVIEW
Shona L Halson
Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis...
May 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24728928/the-efficacy-of-acute-nutritional-interventions-on-soccer-skill-performance
#39
REVIEW
Mark Russell, Michael Kingsley
BACKGROUND: The use of nutritional ergogenic aids in team sports such as soccer is now commonplace. Aligned with the primary aim of soccer, which is to score more goals than the opposition within the allotted time, the quality of performance of technical actions (i.e., skills) executed during soccer-specific exercise is likely to determine success. However, when seeking to maintain soccer skill performance, information about the efficacy of nutritional interventions is lacking and factors which might modulate the efficacy of such strategies are unclear...
July 2014: Sports Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/24421690/sport-nutrition-for-young-athletes
#40
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Laura K Purcell
Nutrition is an important part of sport performance for young athletes, in addition to allowing for optimal growth and development. Macronutrients, micronutrients and fluids in the proper amounts are essential to provide energy for growth and activity. To optimize performance, young athletes need to learn what, when and how to eat and drink before, during and after activity.
April 2013: Paediatrics & Child Health
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