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RSI and other airway management

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By Arthur Cronwright Aspiring to best practice always
Nobuyasu Komasawa, Shunsuke Fujiwara, Toshiaki Minami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
Timothy J Bristle, Shawn Collins, Ian Hewer, Kevin Hollifield
Mechanical ventilators have evolved from basic machines to complicated, electronic, microprocessing engines. Over the last 2 decades, ventilator capabilities and options for critical care and anesthesia ventilators have rapidly advanced. These advances in ventilator modalities--in conjunction with a better understanding of patient physiology and the effects of positive pressure ventilation on the body--have revolutionized the mechanical ventilation process. Clinicians today have a vast array of mechanical ventilator mode options designed to match the pulmonary needs of the critically ill and anesthetized patient...
October 2014: AANA Journal
Edömér Tassonyi, Adrienn Pongrácz, Réka Nemes, László Asztalos, Szabolcs Lengyel, Béla Fülesdi
BACKGROUND: Pipecuronium is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking agent. Sugammadex, a relaxant binding γ-cyclodextrin derivative, reverses the effect of rocuronium, vecuronium, and pancuronium. We investigated whether sugammadex reverses moderate pipecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB) and the doses required to achieve reversal. METHODS: This single-center, randomized, double-blind, 5-group parallel-arm study comprised 50 patients undergoing general anesthesia with propofol, sevoflurane, fentanyl, and pipecuronium...
August 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
B Brueckmann, N Sasaki, P Grobara, M K Li, T Woo, J de Bie, M Maktabi, J Lee, J Kwo, R Pino, A S Sabouri, F McGovern, A K Staehr-Rye, M Eikermann
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade...
November 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Shinsuke Hamaguchi, Nobuko Tezuka, Masaru Nagao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
A De Jong, N Molinari, Y Pouzeratte, D Verzilli, G Chanques, B Jung, E Futier, P-F Perrigault, P Colson, X Capdevila, S Jaber
BACKGROUND: Intubation procedure in obese patients is a challenging issue both in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the operating theatre (OT). The objectives of the study were (i) to compare the incidence of difficult intubation and (ii) its related complications in obese patients admitted to ICU and OT. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre prospective observational cohort study in ICU and OT in obese (BMI≥30 kg m(-2)) patients. The primary endpoint was the incidence of difficult intubation...
February 2015: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Fabiano Di Marco, Daniele Bonacina, Emanuele Vassena, Erik Arisi, Anna Apostolo, Cristina Banfi, Stefano Centanni, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Roberto Fumagalli
BACKGROUND: An increased alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference is frequent in anesthetized patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect on the lung of anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and a brief course of mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), including pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and conductance of the alveolar-capillary membrane (DM), and pulmonary surfactant protein type B (a marker of alveolar damage) were measured in 45 patients without pulmonary disease undergoing extrathoracic surgery...
February 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Joseph D Tobias
One of the long held tenets of pediatric anesthesia has been the notion that the pediatric airway is conical shape with the narrowest area being the cricoid region. However, recent studies using radiologic imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography) or direct bronchoscopic observation have questioned this suggesting that the narrowest segment may be at or just below the glottic opening. More importantly, it has been clearly demonstrated that the airway is elliptical in shape rather than circular with the anterior-posterior dimension being greater than the transverse dimension...
January 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Gregory J Latham, Grace Lopez
Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a relatively newly recognized genetic disease that leads to progressive muscle deterioration. MFM has a varied phenotypic presentation and impacts cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscles. Affected individuals are at increased risk of respiratory failure, significant cardiac conduction abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, and sudden cardiac death. In addition, significant skeletal muscle involvement is common, which may lead to contractures, respiratory insufficiency, and airway compromise as the disease progresses...
March 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
P Casarotti, C Mendola, G Cammarota, F Della Corte
The anesthetic management of patients affected by myasthenia gravis is usually challenging in elective surgery and even more so in emergency procedures. The difficulties involved are several-fold, ranging from the choice of an appropriate muscle relaxant (i.e. one that enables safe and rapid airway management) to neuromuscular monitoring and normal muscular recovery. Additionally, optimizing patient conditions - either pharmacologically or with plasmapheresis - before intervention is well beyond the realm of possibility...
October 2014: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Lindsay Cohen, Valerie Athaide, Maeve E Wickham, Mary M Doyle-Waters, Nicholas G W Rose, Corinne M Hohl
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We synthesize the available evidence on the effect of ketamine on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures, neurologic outcomes, ICU length of stay, and mortality. METHODS: We developed a systematic search strategy and applied it to 6 electronic reference databases. We completed a gray literature search and searched medical journals as well as the bibliographies of relevant articles. We included randomized and nonrandomized prospective studies that compared the effect of ketamine with another intravenous sedative in intubated patients and reported at least 1 outcome of interest...
January 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Nikola Joly, Louis-Pierre Poulin, Issam Tanoubi, Pierre Drolet, François Donati, Patrick St-Pierre
PURPOSE: Many features can influence the choice of a supraglottic airway device (SAD), including ease of insertion, adequate ventilation pressures and lack of adverse effects. The goal of this randomized prospective trial was to compare the performance of the i-gel™ with that of the LMA-Supreme™. METHODS: One hundred adult patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I-III) scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to either an i-gel (n = 50) or an LMA-Supreme (n = 50)...
September 2014: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Henry E Wang, Judith R Lave, Carl A Sirio, Donald M Yealy
Paramedics provide life-saving emergency medical care to patients in the out-of-hospital setting, but only selected emergency interventions have proved to be safe or effective. Endotracheal intubation (the insertion of an emergency breathing tube into the trachea) is an important and high-profile procedure performed by paramedics. In our study population, we found that errors occurred in 22 percent of intubation attempts, with a frequency of up to 40 percent in selected ambulance systems. These findings indicate frequent errors associated with this life-saving technique...
March 2006: Health Affairs
P Gregory, M Woollard, D Lighton, G Munro, E Jenkinson, R G Newcombe, P O'Meara, L Hamilton
In a randomised crossover study, 60 ambulance paramedics attempted tracheal intubation of a manikin model of a Cormack and Lehane grade 3/4 view using a Portex stylet, Portex and Frova single-use bougies, and a Portex reusable bougie. Tracheal intubation within 30 s was achieved by 34/60 (57%) using the stylet, 18/60 (30%) using a Portex single-use bougie, 16/60 (27%) using a Frova single-use bougie and 5/60 (8%) using a Portex reusable bougie. The proportion intubating within 30 s was significantly higher with the stylet compared with any bougie (p < 0...
April 2012: Anaesthesia
Christopher Charles Douglas Evans, Robert J Brison, Daniel Howes, Ian G Stiell, William Pickett
OBJECTIVES: Prehospital airway management for adult trauma patients remains controversial. We sought to review the frequency that paramedic non-drug assisted intubation or attempted intubation is performed for trauma patients in Ontario, Canada, and determine its association with mortality. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Ontario Trauma Registry's Comprehensive Data Set for 2002-2009. Eligible patients were greater than 16 years of age, had an initial Glasgow Coma Score of less than 9 and were cared for by ground-based non-critical care paramedics...
November 2013: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Sheldon Cheskes, Linda Turner, Sue Thomson, Nawfal Aljerian
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated decreased rates of intubation and mortality with prehospital use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We sought to validate these findings in a larger observational study. METHODS: We conducted a before and after observational study of consecutive patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) during the 12 months before and the 12 months following implementation of a prehospital CPAP protocol for acute respiratory distress...
October 2013: Prehospital Emergency Care
Daniel G Ostermayer, Marianne Gausche-Hill
This review discusses the history, developments, benefits, and complications of supraglottic devices in prehospital care for adults and pediatrics. Evidence supporting their use as well as current controversies and developments in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and rapid sequence airway management is discussed. Devices reviewed include the Laryngeal Mask Airway, Esophageal Tracheal Combitube, Laryngeal Tube, I-Gel, Air-Q, Laryngeal Mask Airway Fastrach, and the Supraglottic Airway Laryngopharyngeal Tube (SALT)...
January 2014: Prehospital Emergency Care
Smita Prakash, Amitabh Kumar, Shyam Bhandari, Parul Mullick, Rajvir Singh, Anoop Raj Gogia
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Differences in patient characteristics due to race or ethnicity may influence the incidence of difficult airway. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation, as well as the anatomical features and clinical risk factors that influence them, in the Indian population. METHODS: In 330 adult patients receiving general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation, airway characteristics and clinical factors were determined and their association with difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane grade 3 and 4) was analysed...
November 2013: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
B A Marson, E Anderson, A R Wilkes, I Hodzovic
The bougie is a popular tool in difficult intubations. The hold-up sign is used to confirm tracheal placement of a bougie. This study aimed to establish the potential for airway trauma when using this sign with an Eschmann re-usable bougie or a Frova single-use bougie. Airways were simulated using a manikin (hold-up force) and porcine lung model (airway perforation force). Mean (SD) hold-up force (for airway lengths over the range 25-45 cm) of 1.0 (0.4) and 5.2 (1.1) N were recorded with the Eschmann and Frova bougies, respectively (p < 0...
March 2014: Anaesthesia
Cassie C Kennedy, Eric K Cannon, David O Warner, David A Cook
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on teaching airway management using technology-enhanced simulation. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, and Scopus for eligible articles through May 11, 2011. STUDY SELECTION: Observational or controlled trials instructing medical professionals in direct or fiberoptic intubation, surgical airway, and/or supraglottic airway using technology-enhanced simulation were included...
January 2014: Critical Care Medicine
2014-08-20 13:28:35
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