Karin Grävare Silbernagel, Shawn Hanlon, Andrew Sprague
Achilles tendinopathy is a painful overuse injury that is extremely common in athletes, especially those who participate in running and jumping sports. In addition to pain, Achilles tendinopathy is accompanied by alterations in the tendon's structure and mechanical properties, altered lower extremity function, and fear of movement. Cumulatively, these impairments limit sport participation and performance. A thorough evaluation and comprehensive treatment plan, centered on progressive tendon loading, is required to ensure full recovery of tendon health and to minimize the risk of reinjury...
May 2020: Journal of Athletic Training
Benoit Pairot-de-Fontenay, Richard W Willy, Audrey R C Elias, Ryan L Mizner, Marc-Olivier Dubé, Jean-Sébastien Roy
BACKGROUND: A return to running after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical to the clinical success of any cutting and pivoting athlete who wishes to return to sport. Knowledge of specific alterations during running after ACL-R is required to optimise rehabilitation for improving outcomes and long-term disability. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to summarise kinematic, kinetic and muscle activation data during running after ACL-R and the intrinsic factors (e...
September 2019: Sports Medicine
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Karsten Hollander, Dominik Liebl, Stephanie Meining, Klaus Mattes, Steffen Willwacher, Astrid Zech
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that changing acutely from shod to barefoot running induces several changes to running biomechanics, such as altered ankle kinematics, reduced ground-reaction forces, and reduced loading rates. However, uncertainty exists whether these effects still exist after a short period of barefoot running habituation. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose was to investigate the effects of a habituation to barefoot versus shod running on running biomechanics...
July 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Allegra Barnes, Justin Sullivan, Evangelos Pappas, Roger Adams, Joshua Burns
BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain is a common condition that reduces health-related quality of life. Recovery usually occurs within 12 months; however, up to 20% of people remain symptomatic beyond this time frame. The level of pain and function in this chronic heel pain group is not well described. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and functional characteristics associated with chronic plantar heel pain compared with heel pain of recent onset. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
November 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anders Ploug Boesen, Rudi Hansen, Morten Ilum Boesen, Peter Malliaras, Henning Langberg
BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57)...
July 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Lace E Luedke, Bryan C Heiderscheit, D S Blaise Williams, Mitchell J Rauh
PURPOSE: High school cross-country runners have a high incidence of injury, particularly at the shin and knee. An increased step rate during running has been shown to reduce impact forces and loading of the lower extremity joints. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine step rate as a risk factor for injury occurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Running step rates of 68 healthy high school cross-country runners (47 females; 21 males; mean age 16.2 ± 1...
July 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Adam Hulme, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Toomas Timpka, Evert Verhagen, Caroline Finch
BACKGROUND: Despite a rapidly growing body of research, a systematic evidence compilation of the risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance running-related injury (RRI) was lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compile the evidence about modifiable and non-modifiable training-related and behavioral risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance RRI. METHODS: We searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO) for the dates 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2015, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed articles...
May 2017: Sports Medicine
Peter Nissen Chalmers, Geoff S Van Thiel, Scott W Trenhaile
Surgical repair, reduction, fixation, and reconstruction for glenohumeral trauma, instability, and degenerative joint disease often require an open surgical exposure. Open shoulder surgery is challenging because the deltoid and rotator cuff musculature envelop the joint, and in most approaches, exposure is limited by the proximity and importance of the axillary nerve. An understanding of the importance of the deltoid and the rotator cuff for glenohumeral function has led to a progression of innovative, advanced, and less invasive approaches to the shoulder...
April 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Irene S Davis, Bradley J Bowser, David R Mullineaux
BACKGROUND: Running has been critical to human survival. Therefore, the high rate of injuries experienced by modern day runners is puzzling. Landing on the heel, as most modern day shod runners do, results in a distinct vertical impact force that has been shown to be associated with running-related injuries. However, these injury studies were retrospective in nature and do not establish cause and effect. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether runners with high impacts are at greater risk for developing medically diagnosed injuries...
July 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
B M Nigg, J Baltich, S Hoerzer, H Enders
In the past 100 years, running shoes experienced dramatic changes. The question then arises whether or not running shoes (or sport shoes in general) influence the frequency of running injuries at all. This paper addresses five aspects related to running injuries and shoe selection, including (1) the changes in running injuries over the past 40 years, (2) the relationship between sport shoes, sport inserts and running injuries, (3) previously researched mechanisms of injury related to footwear and two new paradigms for injury prevention including (4) the 'preferred movement path' and (5) the 'comfort filter'...
October 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Mitchell H Rosner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Boris Gojanovic, Rebecca Shultz, Francois Feihl, Gordon Matheson
PURPOSE: Optimal high-intensity interval training (HIIT) regimens for running performance are unknown, although most protocols result in some benefit to key performance factors (running economy (RE), anaerobic threshold (AT), or maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)). Lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills offer the unique possibility to partially unload runners and reach supramaximal speeds. We studied the use of LBPP to test an overspeed HIIT protocol in trained runners. METHODS: Eleven trained runners (35 ± 8 yr, VO2max, 55...
December 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alister McCormick, Carla Meijen, Samuele Marcora
BACKGROUND: No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. OBJECTIVE: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance...
July 2015: Sports Medicine
Adam Sebastian Tenforde, Michael Fredericson, Lauren Carter Sayres, Phil Cutti, Kristin Lynn Sainani
BACKGROUND: Adolescent runners may be at risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) associated with sports participation. Few prior investigations have evaluated bone health in young runners, particularly males. PURPOSE: To characterize sex-specific risk factors for low BMD in adolescent runners. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Training characteristics, fracture history, eating behaviors and attitudes, and menstrual history were measured using online questionnaires...
June 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Brian Gallagher, Fotios P Tjoumakaris, Marc I Harwood, Robert P Good, Michael G Ciccotti, Kevin B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Structure-modifying medications or nutraceuticals may be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis. This study identified 12 treatments that may possess chondroprotective properties: oral glucosamine; chondroitin; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); polyunsaturated fatty acids; S-adenosylmethionine; avocado and soybean unsaponifiable fractions; methylsulfonylmethane; vitamins C, D, and E; intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid; and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)...
March 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
David Montero, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Carsten Lundby
PURPOSE: Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age <40 yr)...
October 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
T Ono, A Higashihara, J Shinohara, N Hirose, T Fukubayashi
The purpose of this study was to identify the period of the gait cycle during which the hamstring muscles were likely injured by estimating the magnitude of tensile force in each muscle during overground sprinting. We conducted three-dimensional motion analysis of 12 male athletes performing overground sprinting at their maximal speed and calculated the hamstring muscle-tendon length and joint angles of the right limb throughout a gait cycle during which the ground reaction force was measured. Electromyographic activity during sprinting was recorded for the biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles of ipsilateral limb...
February 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
M Tyrrell Burrus, Brian C Werner, Jim S Starman, F Winston Gwathmey, Eric W Carson, Robert P Wilder, David R Diduch
Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management...
June 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Inge Bos, Patrick De Boever, Luc Int Panis, Romain Meeusen
This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem...
November 2014: Sports Medicine
Laurent B Seitz, Alvaro Reyes, Tai T Tran, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, G Gregory Haff
BACKGROUND: Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement...
December 2014: Sports Medicine