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By Richard Gough Paramedic tutor, Post Qualification Manager
Michelle Barnes, Anita E Heywood, Abela Mahimbo, Bayzid Rahman, Anthony T Newall, C Raina Macintyre
OBJECTIVE: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of death and disability globally. There is increasing evidence from observational studies that influenza infection is associated with AMI. In patients with known coronary disease, influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. However, the effect of influenza vaccination on incident AMI across the entire population is less well established. METHOD: The purpose of our systematic review of case-control studies is twofold: (1) to estimate the association between influenza infection and AMI and (2) to estimate the association between influenza vaccination and AMI...
November 2015: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
M Kosuge, K Kimura, T Ishikawa, Y Hongo, T Shigemasa, M Sugiyama, O Tochikubo, S Umemura
BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation of > or = 1.0 mm in lead V4R has been shown to be a reliable marker of right ventricular involvement (RVI), a strong predictor of a poor outcome in patients with inferior acute myocardial infarction (IMI). However, patients with no ST-segment elevation in lead V4R despite the presence of RVI have received little attention. HYPOTHESIS: The study was undertaken to study the clinical features of patients with no ST-segment elevation in lead V4R despite the presence of RVI, which means false negative, as such patients have received little attention in the past...
March 2001: Clinical Cardiology
Man-Hong Jim, Hee-Hwa Ho, Chung-Wah Siu, Raymond Miu, Carmen Wing-Sze Chan, Stephen Wai-Luen Lee, Chu-Pak Lau
BACKGROUND: Lead V(4R) faces the right ventricular free wall; it also reflects ischemia in the posterolateral wall lying opposite and manifests as ST-segment depression. HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of V(4R) ST-segment depression in distinguishing proximal from distal left circumflex artery occlusion in acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 239 patients who had first acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction, were admitted within 6 h from onset of symptom, and had coronary angiography performed within 4 weeks...
January 2007: Clinical Cardiology
Hein J Wellens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2009: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
H O Klein, T Tordjman, R Ninio, P Sareli, V Oren, R Lang, J Gefen, C Pauzner, E Di Segni, D David, E Kaplinsky
The sensitivity and specificity of ST-segment elevation in the right precordial lead V4R as an early indicator of right ventricular infarction were examined in a consecutive series of 110 patients admitted for acute inferior myocardial infarction. The sensitivity was 82.7%, the specificity 76.9% and the positive predictive value 70% in 58 patients with right ventricular infarction documented by autopsy or a combination of radionuclide ventriculography and one or more of the following tests: echocardiography, technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy and hemodynamic monitoring...
March 1983: Circulation
J Lopez-Sendon, I Coma-Canella, S Alcasena, J Seoane, C Gamallo
To determine the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and diagnostic efficiency of electrocardiographic alterations in the diagnosis of acute right ventricular infarction, 43 autopsy patients with acute myocardial infarction and an electrocardiogram including 12 leads plus leads V3R and V4R were studied. Group A included 21 patients with right ventricular infarction, of whom 14 (group AI) had posterior and 7 (group AII) had anterior right ventricular infarction. Group B included 22 patients without right ventricular infarction...
December 1985: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Manon G van der Meer, Barbra E Backus, Yolanda van der Graaf, Maarten J Cramer, Yolande Appelman, Pieter A Doevendans, A Jacob Six, Hendrik M Nathoe
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) is more difficult in women than in men. Studies investigating the predictive value of clinical signs and symptoms and compare its combined diagnostic value between women and men are lacking. METHODOLOGY: Data from a large multicenter prospective study was used. Patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain but without ST-elevation were eligible. The endpoint was proven CAD, defined as a significant stenosis at angiography or the diagnosis of a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death within six weeks after presentation at the ED...
2015: PloS One
Anoop S V Shah, Megan Griffiths, Kuan Ken Lee, David A McAllister, Amanda L Hunter, Amy V Ferry, Anne Cruikshank, Alan Reid, Mary Stoddart, Fiona Strachan, Simon Walker, Paul O Collinson, Fred S Apple, Alasdair J Gray, Keith A A Fox, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnosis of myocardial infarction using a high sensitivity troponin I assay and sex specific diagnostic thresholds in men and women with suspected acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Regional cardiac centre, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1126, 46% women). Two cardiologists independently adjudicated the diagnosis of myocardial infarction by using a high sensitivity troponin I assay with sex specific diagnostic thresholds (men 34 ng/L, women 16 ng/L) and compared with current practice where a contemporary assay (50 ng/L, single threshold) was used to guide care...
January 21, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lakshmi Kannan, Vincent M Figueredo
A 31-year-old male smoker with diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with intermittent, exertional chest pain of 4 days' duration. Electrocardiography performed on arrival (Panel A) revealed anterolateral T-wave inversions with biphasic lateral T waves, which raised concern about..
January 1, 2015: New England Journal of Medicine
Richard Body, Gillian Burrows, Simon Carley, Philip S Lewis
OBJECTIVE: The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule may enable acute coronary syndromes to be immediately 'ruled in' or 'ruled out' in the emergency department. The rule incorporates heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) and high sensitivity troponin T levels. The rule was previously validated using a semiautomated h-FABP assay that was not practical for clinical implementation. We aimed to validate the rule with an automated h-FABP assay that could be used clinically...
October 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Katie Tataris, Sean Kivlehan, Prasanthi Govindarajan
INTRODUCTION: The emergency medical services (EMS) system plays a crucial role in the chain of survival for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. While regional studies have shown underutilization of the 911 system for these time-sensitive conditions, national trends have not been studied. Our objective was to describe the national prevalence of EMS use for AMI and stroke, examine trends over a six-year period, and identify patient factors that may contribute to utilization. METHODS: Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED (NHAMCS) dataset from 2003-2009, we looked at patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI or stroke who arrived to the emergency department (ED) by ambulance...
November 2014: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Alok Deshpande, Yochai Birnbaum
The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis...
October 26, 2014: World Journal of Cardiology
Michael McCaul, Andrit Lourens, Tamara Kredo
BACKGROUND: Early thrombolysis for individuals experiencing a myocardial infarction is associated with better mortality and morbidity outcomes. While traditionally thrombolysis is given in hospital, pre-hospital thrombolysis is proposed as an effective intervention to save time and reduce mortality and morbidity in individuals with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Despite some evidence that pre-hospital thrombolysis may be delivered safely, there is a paucity of controlled trial data to indicate whether the timing of delivery can be effective in reducing key clinical outcomes...
September 10, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Melanie Nichols, Nick Townsend, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner
This paper provides an update for 2014 on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in particular coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, across the countries of Europe. Cardiovascular disease causes more deaths among Europeans than any other condition, and in many countries still causes more than twice as many deaths as cancer. There is clear evidence in most countries with available data that mortality and case-fatality rates from CHD and stroke have decreased substantially over the last 5-10 years but at differing rates...
November 7, 2014: European Heart Journal
Fernando Rosell-Ortiz, Francisco J Mellado-Vergel, Patricia Fernández-Valle, Ismael González-Lobato, Manuela Martínez-Lara, María M Ruiz-Montero, Francisco Romero-Morales, Itziar Vivar Díaz, Ángel García-Alcántara, Javier García del Águila
OBJECTIVE: Hospital mortality in myocardial infarction ST-elevation myocardial infarction has decreased in recent years, in contrast to prehospital mortality. Our objective was to determine initial complications and factors related to prehospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI). METHODS: Observational study based on a prospective continuous register of patients of any age attended by out-of-hospital emergency teams in Andalusia between January 2006 and June 2009...
July 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Luis C L Correia, Guilherme Garcia, Felipe Kalil, Felipe Ferreira, Manuela Carvalhal, Ruan Oliveira, André Silva, Isis Vasconcelos, Caio Henri, Márcia Noya-Rabelo
BACKGROUND: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better prognostic performance in patients with STEMI. METHODS: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death...
August 2014: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Richard Body, Gary Cook, Gillian Burrows, Simon Carley, Philip S Lewis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of emergency physician gestalt in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected cardiac chest pain, both alone and in combination with initial troponin level and ECG findings. METHODS: We prospectively included patients presenting to the ED with suspected cardiac chest pain. Clinicians recorded their 'gestalt' at the time of presentation using a five-point Likert scale, blinded to outcome. Troponin T and high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT; both Roche Diagnostics Elecsys) levels were measured in admission blood samples...
November 2014: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Ai Milojevic, Paul Wilkinson, Ben Armstrong, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Liam Smeeth, Shakoor Hajat
OBJECTIVE: To inform potential pathophysiological mechanisms of air pollution effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD), we investigated short-term associations between ambient air pollution and a range of cardiovascular events from three national databases in England and Wales. METHODS: Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, over 400,000 myocardial infarction (MI) events from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) database, over 2 million CVD emergency hospital admissions and over 600,000 CVD deaths were linked with daily mean concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2...
July 2014: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Joseph John Franco, Michael Brown, Riyaz Bashir, Brian O'Murchu
A 42-year-old man emergently presented with chest pain and anterior ST elevation. Refractory ventricular arrhythmias and shock developed rapidly. A coronary angiogram revealed the acute occlusion of a nondominant right coronary artery. After percutaneous coronary intervention, the anterior ST elevation and ventricular arrhythmias resolved. The electrocardiographic pattern was a result of isolated right ventricular infarction that in turn caused profound electrical and hemodynamic instability. We discuss the cause and pathophysiology of this patient's case, and we recommend that interventional and general cardiologists be aware that anterior ST elevation can be caused by the occlusion of a nondominant right coronary artery...
June 2014: Texas Heart Institute Journal
Alessandro Zorzi, Riccardo Turri, Filippo Zilio, Veronica Spadotto, Anna Baritussio, Francesco Peruzza, Nicola Gasparetto, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Luisa Cacciavillani, Armando Marzari, Giuseppe Tarantini, Sabino Iliceto, Domenico Corrado
AIMS: Identification of patients with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) at higher risk of in-hospital life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (LT-VA) and death is crucial for determining appropriate levels of care/monitoring during hospitalisation. We assessed predictors of in-hospital LT-VA and all-cause mortality in a consecutive series of NSTEMI patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 1325 consecutive patients (69.7% males, median age 70 (61-79) years) presenting with NSTEMI and undergoing continuous electrocardiographic monitoring...
December 2014: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
2014-06-18 10:14:55
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