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MH—Track and field

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32 papers 100 to 500 followers Track and field
By Dexter Upton Sports Physical Therapist
Wajdi Dardouri, Mohamed Amin Selmi, Radhouane Haj Sassi, Zied Gharbi, Ahmed Rebhi, Mohamed Haj Yahmed, Wassim Moalla
The aims of this study were firstly, to examine the relationship between repeated sprint performance indices and anaerobic speed reserve (AnSR), aerobic fitness and anaerobic power and secondly, to identify the best predictors of sprinting ability among these parameters. Twenty nine subjects (age: 22.5 ± 1.6 years, body height: 1.8 ± 0.1 m, body mass: 68.8 ± 8.5 kg, body mass index (BMI): 22.2 ± 2.1 kg•m-2, fat mass: 11.3 ± 2.9 %) participated in this study. All participants performed a 30 m sprint test (T30) from which we calculated the maximal anaerobic speed (MAnS), vertical and horizontal jumps, 20m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT) and repeated sprint test (10 × 15 m shuttle run)...
March 27, 2014: Journal of Human Kinetics
Marcus W Kilpatrick, Samuel J Greeley
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of sprint interval training on rating of perceived exertion. 20 healthy participants (11 men, 9 women; M age = 23 yr.) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test and two high-intensity interval training cycling sessions. Each session utilized the same work-to-rest ratio (1:1), work intensity (90% max), recovery intensity (10% work intensity), and session duration (16 min.). Trials differed on duration of the interval segment, with a 30-sec. trial and a 60-sec...
June 2014: Psychological Reports
Kenneth P Clark, Peter G Weyand
Are the fastest running speeds achieved using the simple-spring stance mechanics predicted by the classic spring-mass model? We hypothesized that a passive, linear-spring model would not account for the running mechanics that maximize ground force application and speed. We tested this hypothesis by comparing patterns of ground force application across athletic specialization (competitive sprinters vs. athlete nonsprinters, n = 7 each) and running speed (top speeds vs. slower ones). Vertical ground reaction forces at 5...
September 15, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jason G E Zelt, Paul B Hankinson, William S Foster, Cameron B Williams, Julia Reynolds, Ellen Garneys, Michael E Tschakovsky, Brendon J Gurd
PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of reducing sprint interval training (SIT) work-interval duration on increases in maximal and submaximal performance. METHODS: Subjects (n = 36) were assigned to one of three training groups: endurance training (ET; 60 min per session for weeks 1-2, increasing to 75 min per session for weeks 3-4), or sprint interval training consisting of either repeated 30 (SIT 30) or 15 (SIT 15) second all-out intervals (starting with 4 bouts per session for weeks 1-2, increasing to 6 intervals per session for weeks 3-4)...
November 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Anthony G Schache, Tim W Dorn, Gavin P Williams, Nicholas A T Brown, Marcus G Pandy
This clinical commentary discusses the mechanisms used by the lower-limb musculature to achieve faster running speeds. A variety of methodological approaches have been taken to evaluate lower-limb muscle function during running, including direct recordings of muscle electromyographic signal, inverse dynamics-based analyses, and computational musculoskeletal modeling. Progressing running speed from jogging to sprinting is mostly dependent on ankle and hip muscle performance. For speeds up to approximately 7...
October 2014: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
M Glaister, John R Pattison, Bernadette Dancy, Gillian McInnes
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the recovery kinetics of peak power output (PPO) following a maximal sprint, and to evaluate the influence of aerobic fitness on that recovery process. METHODS: On separate occasions, 16 well-trained men (age: 21 ± 3 years; height: 1.84 ± 0.05 m; and body mass: 78.8 ± 7.8 kg) performed a 30 s maximal sprint on a cycle ergometer, followed by a predetermined stationary rest period (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 s) and a subsequent 5 s sprint to determine PPO recovery kinetics...
November 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Irineu Loturco, Valmor Tricoli, Hamilton Roschel, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Cesar Cavinato Cal Abad, Ronaldo Kobal, Saulo Gil, Juan José González-Badillo
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two different strength-power training models on sprint performance. Forty-eight soldiers of the Brazilian brigade of special operations with at least one year of army training experience were divided into a control group (CG: n = 15, age: 20.2 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.74 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 66.7 ± 9.8 kg), a traditional training group (TT: n = 18, age: 20.1 ± 0.7 years, body height: 1.71 ± 0.05 m, and body mass: 64.2 ± 4.7 kg), and a complex training group (CT: n = 15, age: 20...
June 28, 2014: Journal of Human Kinetics
Matthias Lahner, Simone Bader, Philipp Alexander Walter, Christian Duif, Christoph von Schulze Pellengahr, Carsten Lukas, Andreas Ficklscherer, Stefan Fickert, Marco Hagen
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to analyse the prevalence of femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) in national elite track and field athletes compared to peers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical examination including impingement tests. METHODS: A total of 44 participants (22 national elite track and field athletes and 22 non-athletes) underwent an MRI for radiological findings associated with FAI, including alpha angle, lateral centre edge angle (CEA), findings of labral and cartilage lesions...
December 2014: International Orthopaedics
Laurent B Seitz, Alvaro Reyes, Tai T Tran, Eduardo Saez de Villarreal, G Gregory Haff
BACKGROUND: Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement...
December 2014: Sports Medicine
Michael P Lombardo, Robert O Deaner
Many scientists agree that expertise requires both innate talent and proper training. Nevertheless, the highly influential deliberate practice model (DPM) of expertise holds that talent does not exist or makes a negligible contribution to performance. It predicts that initial performance will be unrelated to achieving expertise and that 10 years of deliberate practice is necessary. We tested these predictions in the domain of sprinting. In Studies 1 and 2 we reviewed biographies of 15 Olympic champions and the 20 fastest American men in U...
2014: PeerJ
C R Plateau, J Arcelus, H J McDermott, C Meyer
This study aimed to explore how track and field coaches respond to athletes with eating problems. Eleven experienced coaches participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their responses to, and challenges faced when, working with athletes with eating problems. The analysis revealed three themes relating to the strategies employed by coaches. The first theme indicated a supportive approach, where coaches were proactive in seeking support and in reducing training at the early stages of an eating problem...
April 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
R Brandon, G Howatson, F Strachan, A M Hunter
The study's aim was to establish the neuromuscular responses in elite athletes during and following maximal 'explosive' regular back squat exercise at heavy, moderate, and light loads. Ten elite track and field athletes completed 10 sets of five maximal squat repetitions on three separate days. Knee extension maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), rate of force development (RFD) and evoked peak twitch force (Pt) assessments were made pre- and post-session. Surface electromyography [root mean square (RMS)] and mechanical measurements were recorded during repetitions...
October 2015: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Neil Edward Bezodis, Aki Ilkka Tapio Salo, Grant Trewartha
This study investigated lower-limb kinematics to explain the techniques used to achieve high levels of sprint start performance. A cross-sectional design was used to examine relationships between specific technique variables and horizontal external power production during the block phase. Video data were collected (200 Hz) at the training sessions of 16 sprinters who ranged in 100 m personal best times from 9.98 to 11.6 s. Each sprinter performed three 30 m sprints and reliable (all intraclass correlation coefficients, ICC(2,3) ≥ 0...
2015: European Journal of Sport Science
Alexander W J Stevens, Terry T Olver, Peter W R Lemon
A 2,000-m time-trial performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs. an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). The EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessions, 2 anaerobic threshold exercise sessions, and 4 strength training sessions. The EBTAlone consisted of 20 continuous, 6 anaerobic threshold, 2 interval exercise sessions, and 8 strength training sessions...
January 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Thorsten Schiffer, Anne Möllinger, Billy Sperlich, Daniel Memmert
CONTEXT: The application of kinesio tape (KT) to lower-extremity muscles as an ergogenic aid to improve muscle-strength-related parameters such as jumping is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the application of KT enhances the jumping performance of healthy uninjured elite female track and field athletes. DESIGN: A double 1-legged jump test was performed before and after the application of blue K-Active tape without traction on the maximally stretched gastrocnemius, hamstrings, rectus femoris, and iliopsoas muscles according to the generally accepted technique...
February 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Laurent B Seitz, Gabriel S Trajano, G Gregory Haff
Purpose: To compare the acute effects of back squats and power cleans on sprint performance. Methods: Thirteen elite junior rugby league players performed 20-m linear sprints before and 7 min after 2 different conditioning activities or 1 control condition. The conditioning activities included 1 set of 3 back squats or power cleans at 90% 1-repetition maximum. A 2  2 repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare preconditioning and postconditioning changes in sprint performance. Results: Both the back-squat and power-clean conditioning activities demonstrated a potentiation effect as indicated by improved sprint time (back squat: P = ...
July 2014: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Adam M Gonzalez, Adam J Wells, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam R Jajtner, William P McCormack, Edward H Robinson, Maren S Fragala, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
The relationships between 30-m sprint time and performance on a nonmotorized treadmill (TM) test and a vertical jump test were determined in this investigation. Seventy-eight physically active men and women (22.9 ± 2.7 years; 73.0 ± 14.7 kg; 170.7 ± 10.4 cm) performed a 30-second maximal sprint on the curve nonmotorized TM after 1 familiarization trial. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) moderate to very strong relationships between 30-m sprint time and body mass (r = -0...
July 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Adrian Lai, Anthony G Schache, Yi-Chung Lin, Marcus G Pandy
The human ankle plantar-flexors, the soleus and gastrocnemius, utilize tendon elastic strain energy to reduce muscle fiber work and optimize contractile conditions during running. However, studies to date have considered only slow to moderate running speeds up to 5 m s(-1). Little is known about how the human ankle plantar-flexors utilize tendon elastic strain energy as running speed is advanced towards maximum sprinting. We used data obtained from gait experiments in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling and optimization techniques to calculate muscle-tendon unit (MTU) work, tendon elastic strain energy and muscle fiber work for the ankle plantar-flexors as participants ran at five discrete steady-state speeds ranging from jogging (~2 m s(-1)) to sprinting (≥8 m s(-1))...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
P G Weyand, D B Sternlight, M J Bellizzi, S Wright
We twice tested the hypothesis that top running speeds are determined by the amount of force applied to the ground rather than how rapidly limbs are repositioned in the air. First, we compared the mechanics of 33 subjects of different sprinting abilities running at their top speeds on a level treadmill. Second, we compared the mechanics of declined (-6 degrees ) and inclined (+9 degrees ) top-speed treadmill running in five subjects. For both tests, we used a treadmill-mounted force plate to measure the time between stance periods of the same foot (swing time, t(sw)) and the force applied to the running surface at top speed...
November 2000: Journal of Applied Physiology
Jean-Benoît Morin, Pascal Edouard, Pierre Samozino
PURPOSE: We transposed the concept of effectiveness of force application used in pedaling mechanics to calculate the ratio of forces (RF) during sprint running and tested the hypothesis that field sprint performance was related to the technical ability to produce high amounts of net positive horizontal force. This ability represents how effectively the total force developed by the lower limbs is applied onto the ground, despite increasing speed during the acceleration phase. METHODS: Twelve physically active male subjects (including two sprinters) performed 8-s sprints on a recently validated instrumented treadmill, and a 100-m sprint on an athletics track...
September 2011: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
2014-06-20 03:05:10
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