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Diabetes in Pregnancy

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8 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Chad Klauser Maternal Fetal Medicine physician in NYC
Badreldeen Ahmed, Mandy Abushama, Majeda Khraisheh, J Dudenhausen
The purpose of this review is to discuss the established role of ultrasound (US) in the management of pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus (DM), as well as new developments with regard to the use of US in this situation. We choose to explore the role of US in pregnancy complicated by DM in three areas: (1) Role of US in estimation of fetal weight. (2) Role of US in diagnosis of congenital malformation. (3) Role of US in monitoring diabetic pregnant patients.
2015: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rachel J Ryu, Karen E Hays, Mary F Hebert
Oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide (second-generation sulfonylurea) and metformin (biguanide) are attractive alternatives to insulin due to lower cost, ease of administration, and better patient adherence. The majority of evidence from retrospective and prospective studies suggests comparable efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide and metformin as compared to insulin when used in the treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Glyburide and metformin have altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and both agents cross the placenta...
December 2014: Seminars in Perinatology
Regina M Simeone, Owen J Devine, Jessica A Marcinkevage, Suzanne M Gilboa, Hilda Razzaghi, Barbara H Bardenheier, Andrea J Sharma, Margaret A Honein
CONTEXT: Maternal pregestational diabetes (PGDM) is a risk factor for development of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Glycemic control before pregnancy reduces the risk of CHDs. A meta-analysis was used to estimate summary ORs and mathematical modeling was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAFs) and the annual number of CHDs in the U.S. potentially preventable by establishing glycemic control before pregnancy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic search of the literature through December 2012 was conducted in 2012 and 2013...
February 2015: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Liran Hiersch, Yariv Yogev
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 3-15% of pregnancies depending upon the geographic location and ethnic groups, and its incidence is estimated to increase even further due to the increasing rates of obesity in the general population and the trend towards advanced maternal age in pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome such as an increased rate of fetal macrosomia, neonatal metabolic disturbances, and maternal injuries. It has been shown that there is an inverse relation between maternal glycemic control and the risk of complications...
February 2015: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Margarita de Veciana
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious medical and obstetrical emergency usually occurring in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Although modern management of the patient with diabetes should prevent the occurrence of DKA during pregnancy, this complication still occurs and can result in significant morbidity and mortality for mother and/or fetus. Metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy can predispose a pregnant diabetic to DKA. The diagnosis of DKA can be more challenging during pregnancy as it does not always manifest with the classic presenting symptoms or laboratory findings...
August 2013: Seminars in Perinatology
Lorie M Harper, Alan Tita, Joseph R Biggio
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of gestational weight gain outside the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations after the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM) on perinatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Women were classified as gestational weight gain (GWG) within, less than, or greater than IOM recommendations for body mass index as calculated by gestational weight gain per week after a diagnosis of GDM...
February 2015: American Journal of Perinatology
Brenda Niu, Vanessa R Lee, Yvonne W Cheng, Antonio E Frias, James M Nicholson, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: Type A1 gestational diabetes mellitus (A1GDM), also known as diet-controlled gestational diabetes, is associated with an increase in adverse perinatal outcomes such as macrosomia and Erb palsy. However, it remains unclear when to deliver these women because optimal timing of delivery requires balancing neonatal morbidities from early term delivery against the risk of intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). We sought to determine the optimal gestational age (GA) for women with A1GDM to deliver...
October 2014: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Gianpaolo Maso, Monica Piccoli, Sara Parolin, Stefano Restaino, Salvatore Alberico
Diabetes in pregnancy represents a risk condition for adverse maternal and feto-neonatal outcomes and many of these complications might occur during labor and delivery. In this context, the obstetrician managing women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes should consider (1) how these conditions might affect labor and delivery outcomes; (2) what are the current recommendations on management; and (3) which other factors should be considered to decide about the timing and mode of delivery. The analysis of the studies considered in this review leads to the conclusion that the decision to deliver should be primarily intended to reduce the risk of stillbirth, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia...
July 2014: Current Diabetes Reports
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