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2013 peds papers

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10 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Morgan Riggan Emergency medicine
Linjie Zhang, Raúl A Mendoza-Sassi, Claire Wainwright, Terry P Klassen
BACKGROUND: Airway oedema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965), MEDLINE (1966 to April week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 2013), LILACS (1985 to May 2013) and Web of Science (1955 to May 2013)...
July 31, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mark H Ebell, JoAnna Shinholser
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to systematically review the accuracy of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score and to identify optimal cutoffs for low- and high-risk populations. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature and identified 26 studies of the accuracy of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score. Data were abstracted in parallel, and only prospective, cohort studies that avoided verification bias were included...
October 2014: Annals of Emergency Medicine
James M Chamberlain, Pamela Okada, Maija Holsti, Prashant Mahajan, Kathleen M Brown, Cheryl Vance, Victor Gonzalez, Richard Lichenstein, Rachel Stanley, David C Brousseau, Joseph Grubenhoff, Roger Zemek, David W Johnson, Traci E Clemons, Jill Baren
IMPORTANCE: Benzodiazepines are considered first-line therapy for pediatric status epilepticus. Some studies suggest that lorazepam may be more effective or safer than diazepam, but lorazepam is not Food and Drug Administration approved for this indication. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lorazepam has better efficacy and safety than diazepam for treating pediatric status epilepticus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 1, 2008, to March 14, 2012...
April 23, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jonathan D Jacobs, Megan Foster, Jim Wan, Jay Pershad
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that hypertonic saline (HS) may improve mucous flow in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Data suggest a trend favoring reduced length of hospital stay and improved pulmonary scores with increasing concentration of nebulized solution to 3% and 5% saline as compared with 0.9% saline mixed with epinephrine. To our knowledge, 7% HS has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 101 infants presenting with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis...
January 2014: Pediatrics
Ran D Goldman, William Mounstephen, Melanie Kirby-Allen, Jeremy N Friedman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vaso-occlusive episodes (VOEs) are the most common complication of sickle cell disease in children. Treatment with magnesium seems to improve cellular hydration and may result in reduced vaso-occlusion. This study aimed to determine if intravenous (IV) magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) reduces length of stay (LOS) in hospital, pain scores, and cumulative analgesia when compared with placebo. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children aged 4 to 18 years requiring admission to hospital with a sickle cell disease VOE requiring IV analgesia...
December 2013: Pediatrics
Stephen B Freedman, Jennifer Thull-Freedman, David Manson, Margot Follett Rowe, Maggie Rumantir, Mohamed Eltorki, Suzanne Schuh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of children diagnosed with constipation assigned a significant alternative diagnosis within 7 days (misdiagnosis), if there is an association between abdominal radiograph (AXR) performance and misdiagnosis, and features that might identify children with misdiagnoses. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive children <18 years who presented to a pediatric emergency department in Toronto, between 2008 and 2010...
January 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Stuart R Dalziel, John Md Thompson, Charles G Macias, Ricardo M Fernandes, David W Johnson, Yehezkel Waisman, Nicholas Cheng, Jason Acworth, James M Chamberlain, Martin H Osmond, Amy Plint, Paolo Valerio, Karen Jl Black, Eleanor Fitzpatrick, Amanda S Newton, Nathan Kuppermann, Terry P Klassen
OBJECTIVE: To identify historical and clinical findings at emergency department presentation associated with severe H1N1 outcome in children presenting with influenza-like illness. DESIGN: Multicentre retrospective case-control study. SETTING: 79 emergency departments of hospitals associated with the Pediatric Emergency Research Networks in 12 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 265 children (<16 years), presenting between 16 April and 31 December 2009, who fulfilled Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for influenza-like illness and developed severe outcomes from laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection...
August 12, 2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Deborah Schonfeld, Brianna M Fitz, Lise E Nigrovic
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We determine the effect of the duration of emergency department (ED) observation on computed tomography (CT) rate for children with minor blunt head trauma. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children with blunt head trauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 14. We defined time from injury as the time from head injury to initial physician (emergency attending physician or fellow) assessment. For children who were observed in the ED before CT decisionmaking, we defined ED observation time as time from initial physician assessment to the decision whether to obtain a CT...
December 2013: Annals of Emergency Medicine
John D Mathews, Anna V Forsythe, Zoe Brady, Martin W Butler, Stacy K Goergen, Graham B Byrnes, Graham G Giles, Anthony B Wallace, Philip R Anderson, Tenniel A Guiver, Paul McGale, Timothy M Cain, James G Dowty, Adrian C Bickerstaffe, Sarah C Darby
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents following exposure to low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans. DESIGN: Population based, cohort, data linkage study in Australia. COHORT MEMBERS: 10.9 million people identified from Australian Medicare records, aged 0-19 years on 1 January 1985 or born between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2005; all exposures to CT scans funded by Medicare during 1985-2005 were identified for this cohort...
May 21, 2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kathryn M Edwards, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Caroline B Hall, Peter G Szilagyi, Mary A Staat, Marika Iwane, Mila M Prill, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: The inpatient and outpatient burden of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection among young children has not been well established. METHODS: We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for acute respiratory illness or fever among inpatient and outpatient children less than 5 years of age in three U.S. counties from 2003 through 2009. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from parents and medical records, HMPV was detected by means of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction assay, and population-based rates of hospitalization and estimated rates of outpatient visits associated with HMPV infection were determined...
February 14, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
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