Sattar Alshryda, James M Mason, Praveen Sarda, T Lou, Martin Stanley, Junjie Wu, Anthony Unsworth
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been successfully used to reduce bleeding in joint replacement. Recently local TXA has been advocated to reduce blood loss in total knee or hip replacement; however, this raised concerns about potential adverse effects of TXA upon the artificial joint replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this biomechanical study we compared the effects of TXA and saline upon the following biomechanical properties of artificial joint materials-(1) tensile properties (ultimate strength, stiffness and Young's modulus), (2) the wear rate using a multi-directional pin-on-plate machine, and (3) the surface topography of pins and plates before and after wear rate testing...
March 2015: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Javaneh Jahanshahi, Farnaz Hashemian, Sara Pazira, Mohammad Hossein Bakhshaei, Farhad Farahani, Ruholah Abasi, Jalal Poorolajal
BACKGROUND: The effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on bleeding and improvement of surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is not clear yet. This study was conducted to answer this question. METHODS: This trial was conducted on 60 patients with chronic sinusitis at Beasat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, from April to November 2013. Thirty patients in the intervention group received three pledgets soaked with TXA 5% and phenylephrine 0.5% for 10 minutes in each nasal cavity before surgery...
2014: PloS One
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kushagra Verma, Thomas Errico, Chris Diefenbach, Christian Hoelscher, Austin Peters, Joseph Dryer, Tessa Huncke, Kirstin Boenigk, Baron S Lonner
BACKGROUND: Antifibrinolytics can reduce intraoperative blood loss. The primary aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of intraoperative tranexamic acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and placebo at reducing perioperative blood loss and the transfusion rate in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal arthrodesis. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of tranexamic acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and placebo used intraoperatively in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis...
May 21, 2014: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Christopher M Duncan, Blake P Gillette, Adam K Jacob, Rafael J Sierra, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, Hugh M Smith
TKA and THA are associated with blood transfusion and risk for postoperative venothromboembolism (VTE). Reports show that tranexamic acid (TA) may be safe to use in high-risk orthopedic patients, but further data are needed to substantiate its use. All patients who underwent primary or revision TKA or THA in a five year period were retrospectively identified. In 13,262 elective TKA or THA procedures, neither the odds of VTE (OR=0.98; 95% CI 0.67-1.45; P=0.939) or adjusted odds of death (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.04-1...
February 2015: Journal of Arthroplasty
James N Bogert, John A Harvin, Bryan A Cotton
Resuscitation of the hemorrhaging patient has undergone significant changes in the last decade resulting in the concept of damage control resuscitation (DCR). Hemostatic resuscitation aims to address the physiologic derangements found in the hemorrhaging patient, namely coagulopathy, acidosis, and hypothermia. Strategies to achieve this are permissive hypotension, high ratio of plasma and platelet transfusion to packed red blood cell transfusion, and limitation of crystalloid administration. Damage control surgery aims for early hemorrhage control and minimizing operative time by delaying definitive repair until the patient's physiologic status has normalized...
March 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Marinus D J Stowers, Daniel P Lemanu, Brendan Coleman, Andrew G Hill, Jacob T Munro
Enhanced recovery pathways for total hip and knee arthroplasty can reduce length of hospital stay and perioperative morbidity. 22 studies were reviewed for identification of perioperative care interventions, including preoperative (n=4), intra-operative (n=8), and postoperative (n=4) care interventions. Factors that improve outcomes included use of pre-emptive and multimodal analgesia regimens to reduce opioid consumption, identification of patients with poor nutritional status and provision of supplements preoperatively to improve wound healing and reduce length of hospital stay, use of warming systems and tranexamic acid, avoidance of drains to reduce operative blood loss and subsequent transfusion, and early ambulation with pharmacological and mechanical prophylaxis to reduce venous thromboembolism and to speed recovery...
December 2014: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ian Roberts, David Prieto-Merino, Daniela Manno
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid (TXA) in bleeding trauma patients, we examined the timing of its effect on mortality. We hypothesised that if TXA reduces mortality by decreasing blood loss, its effect should be greatest on the day of the injury when bleeding is most profuse. However, if TXA reduces mortality via an anti-inflammatory mechanism its effect should be greater over the subsequent days. METHODS: Exploratory analysis, including per-protocol analyses, of data from the CRASH-2 trial, a randomised placebo controlled trial of the effect of TXA on mortality in 20,211 trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding...
December 13, 2014: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
(no author information available yet)
A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether tranexamic acid improves outcomes for patients with life-threatening haematuria. Sixteen papers were found in Medline using the reported searches, of which four presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the evidence is limited, but there may be a role for tranexamic acid in life-threatening haematuria, particularly in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease...
February 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Katharine Ker, Ian Roberts, Haleema Shakur, Tim J Coats
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. Antifibrinolytic treatment has been shown to reduce blood loss following surgery and may also be effective in reducing blood loss following trauma. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumatic injury. SEARCH METHODS: We ran the most recent search in January 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (OvidSP), PubMed and clinical trials registries...
May 9, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
David Clinkard, David Barbic
CLINICAL QUESTION: Does the application of topical tranexamic acid reduce bleeding as compared to anterior packing? ARTICLE CHOSEN: Zahed R, Moharamzadeh P, Alizadeharasi S, et al. A new and rapid method for epistaxis treatment using injectable form of tranexamic acid topically: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Emerg Med 2013;31(9):1389-92. OBJECTIVES: To determine if topically applied tranexamic acid reduces bleeding time in epistaxis...
January 2016: CJEM
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bhavna Hooda, Rajendra Singh Chouhan, Girija Prasad Rath, Parmod Kumar Bithal, Ashish Suri, Ritesh Lamsal
Surgical excision of meningioma is often complicated by significant blood loss requiring blood transfusion with its attendant risks. Although tranexamic acid is used to reduce perioperative blood loss, its blood conservation effect is uncertain in neurosurgery. Sixty adults undergoing elective craniotomy for meningioma excision were randomized to receive either tranexamic acid or placebo, initiated prior to skin incision. Patients in the tranexamic acid group received intravenous bolus of 20mg/kg over 20min followed by an infusion of 1mg/kg/h till the conclusion of surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Philipp Stein, Jan-Dirk Studt, Roland Albrecht, Stefan Müller, Dieter von Ow, Simon Fischer, Burkhardt Seifert, Sergio Mariotti, Donat R Spahn, Oliver M Theusinger
BACKGROUND: There is limited data on prehospital administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in civilian trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in coagulation after severe trauma from on-scene to the hospital after TXA application in comparison to a previous study without TXA. METHODS: The study protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02354885). A prospective, multicenter, observational study investigating coagulation status in 70 trauma patients receiving TXA (1 g intravenously) on-scene versus a control group of 38 patients previously published without TXA...
February 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
A Shiraishi, S Kushimoto, Y Otomo, H Matsui, A Hagiwara, K Murata
BACKGROUND: A reduction in mortality with the early use of tranexamic acid has been demonstrated in severely injured patients who are bleeding. However, the modest treatment effect with no reduction in blood transfusion has raised concerns. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of regular use of tranexamic acid in severely injured patients. METHODS: This multicentre observational study used retrospectively collected data from consecutive injured patients (Injury Severity Score at least 16) treated in 15 Japanese academic institutions in 2012...
May 2017: British Journal of Surgery
Irene Lecker, Dian-Shi Wang, Kirusanthy Kaneshwaran, C David Mazer, Beverley A Orser
BACKGROUND: The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors...
July 2017: Anesthesiology
Irene Lecker, Dian-Shi Wang, Paul D Whissell, Sinziana Avramescu, C David Mazer, Beverley A Orser
Antifibrinolytic drugs are routinely used worldwide to reduce the bleeding that results from a wide range of hemorrhagic conditions. The most commonly used antifibrinolytic drug, tranexamic acid, is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative seizures. The reported increase in the frequency of seizures is alarming, as these events are associated with adverse neurological outcomes, longer hospital stays, and increased in-hospital mortality. However, many clinicians are unaware that tranexamic acid causes seizures...
January 2016: Annals of Neurology
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Paul S Myles, Julian A Smith, Andrew Forbes, Brendan Silbert, Mohandas Jayarajah, Thomas Painter, D James Cooper, Silvana Marasco, John McNeil, Jean S Bussières, Shay McGuinness, Kelly Byrne, Matthew T V Chan, Giovanni Landoni, Sophie Wallace
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. METHODS: In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo coronary-artery surgery and were at risk for perioperative complications to receive aspirin or placebo and tranexamic acid or placebo...
January 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Paul J Zufferey, Julien Lanoiselée, Céline Chapelle, Dmitry B Borisov, Jean-Yves Bien, Pierre Lambert, Rémi Philippot, Serge Molliex, Xavier Delavenne
BACKGROUND: Preoperative administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid reduces bleeding in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty. Increased fibrinolytic activity is maintained throughout the first day postoperation. The objective of the study was to determine whether additional perioperative administration of tranexamic acid would further reduce blood loss. METHODS: This prospective, double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized, superiority study was conducted in 168 patients undergoing unilateral primary hip arthroplasty...
September 2017: Anesthesiology
Hind Bafaqih, May Chehab, Suliman Almohaimeed, Farah Thabet, Abdulrahman Alhejaily, Mohammed AlShahrani, Mohammed A Zolaly, Abeer A Abdelmoneim, Ehab S Abd
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life threatening condition with very limited, often unsuccessful, therapeutic options. This study aimed at exploring the feasibility and efficacy of nebulized tranexamic acid TXA (n-TXA) and nebulized recombinant factor VIIa (n-rFVIIa) when used in a two-step therapy protocol in children with intractable DAH in a pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: In a prospective trial, n-TXA (250 mg/dose for children < 25 kg and 500 mg/dose for children > 25 kg) was administered to 18 children (median age [interquartile range]; 24...
May 2015: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Stephanie Komura, Robert M Rodriguez, Christopher R Peabody
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a synthetic anti-fibrinolytic agent used to prevent and treat various bleeding complications. In many studies, investigators have evaluated its utility and safety orally, intravenously, and topically, but few studies have described the potential benefits of nebulized TXA. CASE REPORT: We present a case of massive hemoptysis treated with nebulized TXA in the emergency department (ED) that led to the cessation of bleeding and avoidance of endotracheal intubation...
May 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mehra Haghi, Wilco van den Oetelaar, Lyn M Moir, Bing Zhu, Gary Phillips, John Crapper, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
PURPOSE: An inhalable dry powder formulation of tranexamic acid (TA) was developed and tested in a novel high-dose Orbital® multi-breath inhaler. The formulation was specifically intended for the treatment of pulmonary haemorrhage and wound healing associated with haemoptysis. METHODS: Inhalable TA particles were prepared by spray drying and the powder characterised using laser diffraction, electron microscopy, thermal analysis, moisture sorption and X-ray powder diffraction...
June 2015: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics