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Childhood development

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19 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Claire Amiet, Elizabeth Couchon, Kelly Carr, Jerôme Carayol, David Cohen
BACKGROUND: There are many societal and cultural differences between healthcare systems and the use of genetic testing in the US and France. These differences may affect the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in each country and influence parental opinions regarding the use of genetic screening tools for ASD. METHODS: Using an internet-based tool, a survey of parents with at least one child with ASD was conducted. A total of 162 participants from the US completed an English version of the survey and 469 participants from France completed a French version of the survey...
2014: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Karen Benjamin Guzzo, Sarah R Hayford
An extensive body of research demonstrates that children increase the stability of marriage. However, it is not clear whether the theories explaining greater marital stability among parents can be applied to the increasing number of cohabiting couples who have children, as cohabitation plays more varied roles in the family system than marriage. Furthermore, theories about children and marital stability often assume that births are intended, which is less likely to be the case for cohabiting than for marital births...
March 1, 2014: Journal of Family Issues
Murray Weeks, John Cairney, T Cameron Wild, George B Ploubidis, Kiyuri Naicker, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: Previous research examining the development of anxious and depressive symptoms (i.e., internalizing symptoms) from childhood to adolescence has often assumed that trajectories of these symptoms do not vary across individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from childhood to adolescence, and to identify risk factors for membership in these trajectory groups. In particular, we sought to identify risk factors associated with early appearing (i...
July 2014: Depression and Anxiety
Terri M Driessen, Brian E Eisinger, Changjiu Zhao, Sharon A Stevenson, Michael C Saul, Stephen C Gammie
BACKGROUND: The mother-child relationship is the most fundamental social bond in mammals, and previous studies indicate that the medial preoptic area (MPOA) contributes to this increase in sociability. It is possible that the same genes that lead to elevated sociability in one condition (the maternal state) might also be dysregulated in some disorders with social deficits (e.g. autism). In this study, we examined whether there was enrichment (greater than chance overlap) for social deficit disorder related genes in MPOA microarray results between virgin and postpartum female mice...
2014: BMC Neuroscience
Anders Hviid, Mads Melbye, Björn Pasternak
BACKGROUND: Studies have raised concern about an association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all singleton live births in Denmark from 1996 through 2005 (626,875 births), with follow-up through 2009. Using Danish population registries, we linked information on maternal use of SSRIs before and during pregnancy, autism spectrum disorders diagnosed in the offspring, and a range of potential confounders...
December 19, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Hing Keung Ma
Previous theories of moral development such as those by Piaget and Kohlberg usually focused on the cognitive or rational aspect, and seldom included the affective aspect in their construction. The characteristics of the stages of moral development in the present paper are elaborated with special reference to psychological needs, altruism and human relationships, and justice reasoning. The three stages are: (1) Physical Survival, Selfishness, and Obedience, (2) Love Needs, Reciprocal Altruism, and Instrumental Purpose; and (3) Belongingness Needs, Primary Group Altruism, and Mutual Interpersonal Expectations...
2013: Frontiers in Public Health
Joav Merrick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2013: Frontiers in Public Health
Natalie Brito, Rachel Barr
Memory flexibility is a hallmark of the human memory system. As indexed by generalization between perceptually dissimilar objects, memory flexibility develops gradually during infancy. A recent study has found a bilingual advantage in memory generalization at 18 months of age [Brito and Barr [2012] Developmental Science, 15, 812-816], and the present study examines when this advantage may first emerge. In the current study, bilingual 6-month-olds were more likely than monolinguals to generalize to a puppet that differed in two features (shape and color) than monolingual 6-month-olds...
July 2014: Developmental Psychobiology
Lakshmi Raman
Four studies examined children's and adults' beliefs about the impact of nutrition on growth and mood states. In Studies 1 and 2, 271 participants (preschoolers through adults) judged the impact of healthy and unhealthy nutrition on height and weight. In Studies 3 and 4, 267 participants judged the impact of healthy and unhealthy nutrition on positive and negative mood states. The results suggest that young children demonstrate a co-existence of an ontologically distinct theory of biology as well as a theory of cross-domain interaction when reasoning about the impact of food on biological and psychological processes...
March 2014: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Andrew S Garner
Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress...
November 2013: Pediatrics
Lucy R Betts, James Stiller
Centrality is an indicator of an individual's relative importance within a social group. Predictors of centrality in best friendship networks were examined in 146 children (70 boys and 76 girls, Mage  = 9.95). Children completed measures of social confidence, social desirability, friendship quality, school liking, and loneliness and nominated their best friends from within their class at two time points, 3 months apart. Multigroup path analysis revealed gender differences in the antecedents of centrality...
March 2014: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Sean M Shiverick, Colleen F Moore
This study investigated whether children appreciate that enacting an intention can emotionally affect an agent separately from whether the agent's desire is fulfilled. Children ages 5-11 years and adults heard several vignettes about an agent who intended to take another child's toy in which the agent's intention was either enacted or blocked and desire was fulfilled or unfulfilled. The effect of intention on judgements of the agent's emotion varied according to desire fulfilment and age. Overall, participants judged that an agent who acted intentionally to fulfil a desire felt happier than an agent whose intention was blocked...
November 2013: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Martin H Teicher, Jacqueline A Samson
OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype. METHOD: The authors reviewed the literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without a history of maltreatment who share the same diagnoses...
October 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sheila J Cunningham, Francis Vergunst, C Neil Macrae, David J Turk
The self-reference effect (SRE) is the reliable memory advantage for information encoded about self over material encoded about other people. The developmental pathway of the SRE has proved difficult to chart, because the standard SRE task is unsuitable for young children. The current inquiry was designed to address this issue using an ownership paradigm, as encoding objects in the context of self-ownership have been shown to elicit self-referential memory advantages in adults. Pairs of 4- to 6-year-old children (n = 64) sorted toy pictures into self- and other-owned sets...
September 2013: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Yonata Levy
This article presents current neurobiological concepts that highlight the critical role of chronological age in determining optimal development. The role of sensitive periods, experience expectancy, gene expression, and gene-age interactions is discussed. The debate between "splitters" and "lumpers" is presented in light of the review articles in this special issue. The conclusion from this study is that in a significant proportion of cases, earlier diagnoses are possible, avoiding the all-encompassing developmental delay/global developmental delay, and opening up possibilities of early interventions...
2011: Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Yonata Levy, Asher Ornoy, Yoram Nevo
A significant percentage of children, ages 0-5 years, present with developmental delays. Delays can be global (GDD), when two or more developmental areas manifest at least 6 months delays, or specific (SDD)when it relates to a single functional area. This special issue reviews etiologies as well as clinical and research uses of the term, focusing on the potential for arriving at earlier specific diagnoses in cases of CP, ADHD, ASD and language impairments (LI).
2011: Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Jonathan Y Bernard, Maria De Agostini, Anne Forhan, Toni Alfaiate, Mercedes Bonet, Valérie Champion, Monique Kaminski, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dose-response relationship between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development in French preschool children. STUDY DESIGN: In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, we evaluated language ability with the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) in 1387 2-year-old children and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) in 1199 3-year-old children. Assessments were compared between breastfed and non-breastfed children and also according to breastfeeding duration in multivariable linear models, controlling for a wide range of potential confounders...
July 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Toby L Parcel, Lori Ann Campbell, Wenxuan Zhong
We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child" (N = 1,430). Findings suggest that in both societies, male children, those with health problems, and those whose mothers are divorced are at increased risk for behavior problems, while those with stronger home environments are at reduced risk...
2012: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
(no author information available yet)
Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem...
January 2012: Cerebral Cortex
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