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Parapneumonic effusions

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6 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Jason Mann No BS pulmonary critical care fellow
John P Corcoran, John M Wrightson, Elizabeth Belcher, Malcolm M DeCamp, David Feller-Kopman, Najib M Rahman
Pleural space infections are increasing in incidence and continue to have high associated morbidity, mortality, and need for invasive treatments such as thoracic surgery. The mechanisms of progression from a non-infected, pneumonia-related effusion to a confirmed pleural infection have been well described in the scientific literature, but the route by which pathogenic organisms access the pleural space is poorly understood. Data suggests that not all pleural infections can be related to lung parenchymal infection...
July 2015: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Andreas H Diacon, Chris T Bolliger
At least 40% of all patients with pneumonia will have an associated pleural effusion, although a minority will require an intervention for a complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema. All patients require medical management with antibiotics. Empyema and large or loculated effusions need to be formally drained, as well as parapneumonic effusions with a pH <7.20, glucose <3.4 mmol/l (60 mg/dl) or positive microbial stain and/or culture. Drainage is most frequently achieved with tube thoracostomy. The use of fibrinolytics remains controversial, although evidence suggests a role for the early use in complicated, loculated parapneumonic effusions and empyema, particularly in poor surgical candidates and in centres with inadequate surgical facilities...
2008: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
José Manuel Porcel, Manuel Vives, Aureli Esquerda, Agustín Ruiz
AIM: To assess the value of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guidelines to predict which patients with non-purulent parapneumonic effusions (PPE) warrant chest tube drainage. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent thoracentesis because of a PPE over a 10-year period at a Spanish medical center. Classification of PPE as complicated (CPPE) or uncomplicated (UPPE) was based on the clinician's decision to insert a chest tube to resolve the effusion...
May 2006: Respiratory Medicine
Gene L Colice, Steven Idell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Chest
John M Wrightson, Robert J O Davies
Parapneumonic effusions are seen in up to 57% of patients with pneumonia. The majority of these effusions are noninfected and resolve with standard antibiotic treatment for the associated pneumonia. However, parapneumonic effusions in a minority of cases become infected and require prompt chest tube drainage and occasionally thoracic surgery. Patients may present in a variety of ways from florid sepsis to weight loss and anorexia; such diversity mandates a high index of suspicion among physicians. The role of the combination of intrapleural deoxyribonuclease (DNase) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) to aid fluid drainage shows promise but needs further assessment in large trials with surgery and mortality as primary end points...
December 2010: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Richard W Light
Parapneumonic effusions occur in 20 to 40% of patients who are hospitalized with pneumonia. The mortality rate in patients with a parapneumonic effusion is higher than that in patients with pneumonia without a parapneumonic effusion. Some of the excess mortality is due to mismanagement of the parapneumonic effusion. Characteristics of patients that indicate that an invasive procedure will be necessary for its resolution include the following: an effusion occupying more than 50% of the hemithorax or one that is loculated; a positive Gram stain or culture of the pleural fluid; and a purulent pleural fluid that has a pH below 7...
2006: Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
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