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4 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Ehud Ur Professor and Head, Endocrinology, UBC, Vancouver
Garron T Dodd, Stephanie Decherf, Kim Loh, Stephanie E Simonds, Florian Wiede, Eglantine Balland, Troy L Merry, Heike Münzberg, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Barbara B Kahn, Benjamin G Neel, Kendra K Bence, Zane B Andrews, Michael A Cowley, Tony Tiganis
The primary task of white adipose tissue (WAT) is the storage of lipids. However, "beige" adipocytes also exist in WAT. Beige adipocytes burn fat and dissipate the energy as heat, but their abundance is diminished in obesity. Stimulating beige adipocyte development, or WAT browning, increases energy expenditure and holds potential for combating metabolic disease and obesity. Here, we report that insulin and leptin act together on hypothalamic neurons to promote WAT browning and weight loss. Deletion of the phosphatases PTP1B and TCPTP enhanced insulin and leptin signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons and prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing WAT browning and energy expenditure...
January 15, 2015: Cell
George Stratigopoulos, Jayne F Martin Carli, Diana R O'Day, Liheng Wang, Charles A Leduc, Patricia Lanzano, Wendy K Chung, Michael Rosenbaum, Dieter Egli, Daniel A Doherty, Rudolph L Leibel
Common polymorphisms in the first intron of FTO are associated with increased body weight in adults. Previous studies have suggested that a CUX1-regulatory element within the implicated FTO region controls expression of FTO and the nearby ciliary gene, RPGRIP1L. Given the role of ciliary genes in energy homeostasis, we hypothesized that mice hypomorphic for Rpgrip1l would display increased adiposity. We find that Rpgrip1l⁺/⁻ mice are hyperphagic and fatter, and display diminished suppression of food intake in response to leptin administration...
May 6, 2014: Cell Metabolism
Nicole Bellefontaine, Konstantina Chachlaki, Jyoti Parkash, Charlotte Vanacker, William Colledge, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny, John Garthwaite, Sebastien G Bouret, Vincent Prevot
The transition to puberty and adult fertility both require a minimum level of energy availability. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin signals the long-term status of peripheral energy stores and serves as a key metabolic messenger to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or its receptor fail to complete puberty and are infertile. Restoration of leptin levels in these individuals promotes sexual maturation, which requires the pulsatile, coordinated delivery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone to the pituitary and the resulting surge of luteinizing hormone (LH); however, the neural circuits that control the leptin-mediated induction of the reproductive axis are not fully understood...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Guian Huang, Juan Li, Hongning Wang, Xinyu Lan, Yajun Wang
Leptin (LEP) is reported to play important roles in controlling energy balance in vertebrates, including birds. However, it remains an open question whether an authentic "LEP gene" exists and functions in birds. Here, we identified and characterized a LEP gene (zebra finch LEP [zbLEP]) encoding a 172-amino acid precursor in zebra finches. Despite zbLEP showing limited amino acid sequence identity (26%-29%) to human and mouse LEPs, synteny analysis proved that zbLEP is orthologous to mammalian LEP. Using a pAH32 luciferase reporter system and Western blot analysis, we demonstrated that the recombinant zbLEP protein could potently activate finch and chicken LEP receptors (zbLEPR; cLEPR) expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and enhance signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, further indicating that zbLEP is a functional ligand for avian LEPRs...
September 2014: Endocrinology
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