Enrico Marinelli, Renata Beck, Antonio Malvasi, Alfredo Fabrizio Lo Faro, Simona Zaami
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse, but also for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients and as an adjuvant for control of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The main aim of this review is to summarise updated knowledge about GHB pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, acute poisoning, and clinical features of GHB withdrawal syndrome, its diagnosis and medical treatment. The most common clinical signs and symptoms of acute poisoning include sleepiness to deep coma, bradycardia, hypotension, and respiratory failure...
March 1, 2020: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Shaoming Jin, Xiao Ning, Jin Cao, Yaonan Wang
γ -Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a neurotransmitter, which exhibits a strong central nervous system depressant effect. The abuse of GHB or its precursor substances ( γ -butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)) may cause serious problems. This study developed a fast and effective UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of GHB, GBL, and 1,4-BD in four popular beverages, including carbonated drinks, tea, apple cider vinegar, and coffee. The established method overcomes the influence of the in-source collision-induced dissociation of unstable compounds during quantification...
2020: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Rana El Rawas, Inês M Amaral, Alex Hofer
Drug addiction is a multifactorial disorder resulting from the complex interaction between biological, environmental and drug-induced effects. Generally, stress is a well-known risk factor for the development of drug addiction and relapse. While most of the research focuses on risk factors that increase the vulnerability to drugs of abuse, recent studies are focusing on the areas of strength/positive coping approaches that can increase resistance to drugs of abuse. In this review, we concentrate on resilience, seen as a dynamic process, which can allow individuals to positively adapt within the context of a specific risk for psychiatric illness...
August 2020: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Barbara Loi, Michelle A Sahai, Maria Antonietta De Luca, Hana Shiref, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Stimulant drugs, including novel psychoactive substances (NPS, formerly "legal highs") have addictive potential which their users may not realize. Stimulants increase extracellular dopamine levels in the brain, including the reward and addiction pathways, through interacting with dopamine transporter (DAT). This work aimed to assess the molecular and atomistic mechanisms of stimulant NPS actions at DAT, which translate into biological outcomes such as dopamine release in the brain's reward pathway...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hui Shen, Meijuan Chen, Donghong Cui
In recent years, research on meditation as an important alternative therapy has developed rapidly and been widely applied in clinical medicine. Mechanism studies of meditation have also developed progressively, showing that meditation has great impact on brain structure and function, and epigenetic and telomere regulation. In line with this, the application of meditation has gradually been expanded to mental illness, most often applied for major depressive disorders and substance-related and addictive disorders...
2020: General Psychiatry
Beril Altun, İsmet Çok
Synthetic cathinones are new designer drugs that possess hallucinogenic and psychostimulant properties, and are designed to mimic the effects of illegal substances such as cocaine, amphetamines, and 3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) and to produce rewarding effects, circumventing existing laws and penalties. Synthetic cathinones, also referred to as 'bath salts', have become popular particularly among young people since the mid-2000s. Similar to other psychomotor stimulants, synthetic cathinones have the potential to increase monoamine concentration in the synaptic cleft by targeting the plasma membrane transporters of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin...
April 2020: Turkish journal of pharmaceutical sciences
Collin M Reiff, Elon E Richman, Charles B Nemeroff, Linda L Carpenter, Alik S Widge, Carolyn I Rodriguez, Ned H Kalin, William M McDonald
OBJECTIVE: The authors provide an evidenced-based summary of the literature on the clinical application of psychedelic drugs in psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Searches of PubMed and PsycINFO via Ovid were conducted for articles in English, in peer-reviewed journals, reporting on "psilocybin," "lysergic acid diethylamide," "LSD," "ayahuasca," " 3,4 -methylenedioxymethamphetamine," and "MDMA," in human subjects, published between 2007 and July 1, 2019...
May 1, 2020: American Journal of Psychiatry
Balasingam Vicknasingam, Weng Tink Chooi, Azlan Abdul Rahim, Dinesh Ramachandram, Darshan Singh, Surash Ramanathan, Nur Sabrina Mohd Yusof, Hadzliana Zainal, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Marek C Chawarski
Background : Kratom has a long history of traditional medicine use in Southeast Asia. Consumption of kratom products has also been reported in the US and other regions of the world. Pain relief is among many self-reported kratom effects but have not been evaluated in controlled human subject research. Methods : Kratom effects on pain tolerance were assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. During a 1-day inpatient stay, participants received a randomized sequence of kratom and placebo decoctions matched for taste and appearance...
June 2020: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Lindsay E Johnson, Lilian Balyan, Amy Magdalany, Fizza Saeed, Robert Salinas, Starla Wallace, Charles A Veltri, Marc T Swogger, Zach Walsh, Oliver Grundmann
Mitragyna speciosa , otherwise known as kratom, is a plant in the coffee family (Rubiaceae) native to Southeast Asia and Thailand whose leaves have been shown to cause opioid-like and stimulant responses upon ingestion. The major pharmacologically active compounds present in kratom, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG), are both indole alkaloids and are responsible for its opioid-like activity. While kratom is most commonly known for its affinity for mu-opioid receptors, research has shown one of its active components has effects on the same receptors to which some antipsychotics bind, such as D2 dopamine, serotonin (5-HT2C and 5-HT7 ), and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors displaying possible indications of kratom to be used as both antipsychotics and antidepressants...
June 2020: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Jun-Ichiro Oka
This review focuses on the anti-dementia and antidepressant-like effects of peptides including glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2, neuromedin U (NmU), and oxytocin, and the intranasal delivery of these peptides to the brain. Intracerebroventricularly administered GLP-1, NmU, and oxytocin improved impairment of learning and memory in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide or β-amyloid protein. GLP-1 also improved impairment of learning and memory in juvenile diabetes model rats. On the other hand, GLP-2 exhibited antidepressant-like effects in mice during the forced-swim test, which were associated with 5-HT1A , α2 , β1 , and D2 receptors...
2019: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
I Tissen, R Kurbanov, K Hohlov, S Proshin, A Lebedev, G Bagaturiya, P Shabanov
Corticoliberin (CRF) isn't only regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, but also functions as a neurotransmitter in extrahypothalamic brain regions like amygdala, implicated in the emotional responses to stress. The CRF system provides an input to orexin neurons and can modulate the activity of orexinergic neurons in stress response. Some data showed the role of orexin-A in extinction of aversive memory. The orexin system was shown to participate in stress-induced behavior connected with the extended amygdala structures, like central nucleus of the amygdala...
May 2019: Georgian Medical News
Yolaine Rabat, Nadia Henkous, Marc Corio, Xavier Nogues, Daniel Beracochea
This study compares the impact of repeated injections of baclofen (an agonist of GABAB receptors) or diazepam (a benzodiazepine having an agonist action on GABAA receptors) given during the alcohol-withdrawal period on the stress-induced restoration of alcohol-seeking behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction after a long (4 weeks) abstinence. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a 6-month alcohol consumption [12% volume/volume (v/v)] and were progressively withdrawn to water before testing...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Manojkumar A Puthenveedu
In the past 50 years, scientists have made considerable strides toward understanding how opioids act. This special issue of Molecular Pharmacology celebrates these 50 years of opioid research and the role that the International Narcotics Research Conference has played in driving this research, by bringing together review and original research articles that present historical highlights, the current state of the art, and perspectives on the future of opioid research. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Opioids have been used for thousands of years to manage pain and cause euphoria, but their use has been highly limited due to serious side effects...
October 2020: Molecular Pharmacology
Valentin Yurievich Skryabin, Maria Alekseevna Vinnikova, Sergey Dmitrievich Komarov, Albert Grigorievich Khvan
: The paper describes 2 case reports of non-medical use of Naphazoline (Naphthyzin). Both demonstrate that the peripherally acting alpha-adrenergic agonist Naphazoline obtains some addictive potential. The drug produces a feeling of euphoria, which resembles the perceived effects of psychostimulants. Both patients and people who consume Naphazoline for intoxication report increased tolerance after repeated use which indicates the addictive potential of the substance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first examination of non-medical Naphazoline use and the first attempt to describe its addictive potential...
September 2020: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Ori-Michael Benhamou, Sean Lynch, Lidia Klepacz
Buprenorphine (BPN) is an opiate medication that is increasingly used in the management of Opioid Use Disorder and pain disorders. This case report highlights the acute efficacy of using buprenorphine-naloxone (BPN-NAL) to reverse anhedonia and suicidal ideation in an individual with OUD, chronic pain and severe suicide attempts.We present a case of a 39-year-old male with a history of bipolar disorder, several lethal suicide attempts and polysubstance abuse, who presented to the hospital after self-immolation, burning 45% total body surface area...
April 2020: CNS Spectrums
Anna Borissova, Bart Ferguson, Matthew B Wall, Celia Ja Morgan, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Mark Bolstridge, Michael Ap Bloomfield, Tim M Williams, Amanda Feilding, Kevin Murphy, Robin J Tyacke, David Erritzoe, Lorna Stewart, Kim Wolff, David Nutt, H Valerie Curran, Will Lawn
BACKGROUND: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is being actively researched as an adjunct to psychotherapy. It may be beneficial to trust, empathy and cooperative behaviour due to its acute prosocial effects. AIM: To test (a) the acute effects of MDMA on measures of empathy, trust and cooperative behaviour, and (b) subacute changes in mood three days after MDMA administration. METHODS: Twenty-five participants ( n =7 female), participated in this double-blind, repeated-measures, placebo-controlled experiment...
June 15, 2020: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Priscila Diaz, António Carneiro, Vera Montes, Sara Alves
Cantharidin is a toxin extracted from coleoptera beetles, commonly known as 'Spanish fly'. Traditionally it was used as an aphrodisiac, a vesicant or as an abortifacient. Intoxication by this substance has been widely reported, generally associated with gastrointestinal complications, such as digestive hemorrhage, and genitourinary disorders, such as hematuria and acute kidney injury. The authors describe the case of a 51-year old male patient who developed severe cantharidin poisoning after ingesting a preparation ('tea formulation') containing the substance...
April 1, 2020: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Noam Zilberman, Gal Yadid, Yaniv Efrati, Yuri Rassovsky
A multitude of psychological and social factors likely contribute to the development and maintenance of addictive disorders. As different people develop different addictions, it is important to understand whether psychosocial factors are related differently to different types of addictive disorders. In this study, we examined the unique interaction of personality traits, family environment, and life events in predicting substance (drugs, alcohol) and behavioral (gambling, sex) addictive disorders, among 207 participants suffering from an addictive disorder and 79 controls...
September 2020: Psychiatry Research
Pier Paolo Pani, Angelo G I Maremmani, Matteo Pacini, Emanuela Trogu, Gian Luigi Gessa, Pedro Ruiz, Icro Maremmani
The diagnosis of substance use disorder is currently based on the presence of specifically identified behavioral symptoms. In addition, other psychiatric signs and symptoms accompany addictive behavior, contributing to the full picture of patients' psychopathologic profile. Historically, such symptoms were confined within the framework of "comorbidity", as comorbid psychiatric disorders or personality traits. However, an alternative unitary view of the psychopathology of addiction, inclusive of related psychiatric symptoms, has been claimed, with the support of epidemiological, neurobiological, and neuropsychological evidence...
June 18, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
José M Martínez-González, Alfonso Caracuel, Raquel Vilar-López, Elisardo Becoña, Antonio Verdejo-García
Lack of motivation for the treatment of drug addiction is associated with dropout and relapses. Further, personality disorders (PD) have traditionally been linked to low motivation and therapeutic failure. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the structure of the Motivation for Treatment Questionnaire (MTQ-8), as well as to determine differences in motivation due to the presence of PD and the impact of psychological adjustment on motivation. The sample included 125 patients (84% male) who started a treatment for their addiction to cocaine and alcohol...
June 16, 2020: Spanish Journal of Psychology
2020-07-05 20:10:33
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