Majid Davidson, Niloufar Rashidi, Md Kamal Hossain, Ali Raza, Kulmira Nurgali, Vasso Apostolopoulos
Addiction, the continuous misuse of addictive material, causes long-term dysfunction in the neurological system. It substantially affects the control strength of reward, memory, and motivation. Addictive substances (alcohol, marijuana, caffeine, heroin, methamphetamine (METH), and nicotine) are highly active central nervous stimulants. Addiction leads to severe health issues, including cardiovascular diseases, serious infections, and pulmonary/dental diseases. Drug dependence may result in unfavorable cognitive impairments that can continue during abstinence and negatively influence recovery performance...
February 1, 2023: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liam S Acheson, Nadine Ezard, Nicholas Lintzeris, Adrian Dunlop, Jonathan Brett, Craig Rodgers, Anthony Gill, Michael Christmass, Rebecca McKetin, Michael Farrell, Steve Shoptaw, Krista J Siefried
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine (MA) use disorder is an important public health concern. MA withdrawal is often the first step in ceasing or reducing use. There are no evidence-based withdrawal treatments, and no medication is approved for the treatment of MA withdrawal. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) dimesilate, used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and binge eating disorder has the potential as an agonist therapy to ameliorate withdrawal symptoms, and improve outcomes for patients...
2022: PloS One
Yu-Jung Cheng, Chieh-Hsin Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
Studies have demonstrated the beneficial therapeutic effects of sarcosine, benzoate, and ketamine (including esketamine and arketamine) on depression. These drugs mainly act by modulating N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and reducing inflammation in the brain. Although ketamine, benzoate, and sarcosine act differently as the antagonists or coagonists of NMDARs, they all have demonstrated efficacy in animal models or human trials. In vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that sarcosine, benzoate, and ketamine exert their anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activity...
February 1, 2023: Neuropharmacology
Aleksandra Gliwińska, Justyna Czubilińska-Łada, Gniewko Więckiewicz, Elżbieta Świętochowska, Andrzej Badeński, Marta Dworak, Maria Szczepańska
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) belongs to the family of neurotrophins, which are growth factors with trophic effects on neurons. BDNF is the most widely distributed neurotrophin in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Its distribution outside the CNS has also been demonstrated, but most studies have focused on its effects in neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the advances in medicine in recent decades, neurological and psychiatric diseases are still characterized by high drug resistance...
January 18, 2023: Brain Sciences
Thomas N Wise, Paul M Dellemonache, Maurice M Bachawati
The psychosomatic interview is a patient-focused dialogue between physician and patient. It differs from the traditional disease-focused encounter in that the psychosomatic approach includes the biological, psychological, and sociocultural domains irrespective of the patients initial complaint, whether somatic or psychological. The process of dyadic interaction and the techniques of open questions are reviewed. Specific issues such as the alexithymic patient and breaking bad news are challenges in such communications...
2012: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Gabrielle E Brown, Mona Malakouti, Eric Sorenson, Rishu Gupta, John Y M Koo
Psychodermatology is an underappreciated field that studies psychocutaneous disorders, which are conditions that have both dermatologic and psychiatric characteristics. Underlying psychiatric comorbidity is estimated to occur in up to one-third of dermatologic patients, and psychiatric illness may either be the cause or the consequence of dermatologic disease. Psychodermatologic patients lack insight and often do not recognize a psychiatric etiology for their symptoms and therefore comprise some of the most challenging cases to treat...
2015: Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine
Chin-Chuen Lin, Tiao-Lai Huang
Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin 1 and 2, are excitory neuropeptides synthesized in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamic areas. Following their discovery in 1998, orexins are now known to be involved in feeding, sleep, stress response, and reward processing. Most importantly, orexin deficiency has been linked to narcolepsy, a neurological sleep-wake disorder. Patients with narcolepsy also present overlapping symptoms with psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depressed mood, and even hallucinations, which often lead to misdiagnosis in the initial assessment...
2022: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Roy R Gerona, Deborah French
Traditional clinical toxicology involves the analysis of patient urine samples by immunoassays designed to detect opiates/opioids, amphetamine/methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine metabolite and tetrahydrocannabinol. Expanded drug screens may also include assays for oxycodone, buprenorphine, methadone, 6-monoacetylmorphine, phencyclidine and fentanyl. Patient samples that are positive are commonly reflexed to be run on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory assay, as are samples that are negative for drugs that are prescribed to the patient...
2022: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Elizabeth Bowen, Andrew Irish, Charles LaBarre, Nicole Capozziello, Thomas Nochajski, Robert Granfield
BACKGROUND: Item specification is foundational to measurement development but rarely reported in depth. We address this gap by explicating our use of qualitative methods to ground and develop items for a new recovery capital measure, the Multidimensional Inventory of Recovery Capital. METHOD: We recruited a diverse sample of service providers ( n = 9) and people in recovery from alcohol problems ( n = 23) to provide feedback on an item pool assessing social, human, physical, community, and cultural capital...
2022: Addiction Research & Theory
Qinpeng Bu, Jingkai Zhang, Xiang Guo, Yifei Feng, Huan Yan, Weimin Cheng, Zhitao Feng, Meiqun Cao
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have shown potential antidepressant effects. This study evaluated the effect and probable mechanisms of bifid triple viable capsules (BTVCs) on a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into Normal, CUMS model, fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX), BTVCs, and FLX+BTVCs groups. Depressive-like behaviours, pathological changes in the hippocampus, changes in serum metabolites and potential biomarkers, and metabolic pathways were detected via behavioural tests, haematoxylin-eosin staining, nissl staining, non-targetted metabolomics, and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA)...
2022: Frontiers in Nutrition
L Krishaa, Ted Kheng Siang Ng, Hai Ning Wee, Jianhong Ching
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome (GM) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGB). Alterations in GM composition and diversity have been observed in both animal models and in human patients with AD. GM dysbiosis has been implicated in increased intestinal permeability, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, neuroinflammation and the development of hallmarks of AD...
February 1, 2023: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Sohvi Luukkonen, Helle W van den Maagdenberg, Michael T M Emmerich, Gerard J P van Westen
The factors determining a drug's success are manifold, making de novo drug design an inherently multi-objective optimisation (MOO) problem. With the advent of machine learning and optimisation methods, the field of multi-objective compound design has seen a rapid increase in developments and applications. Population-based metaheuris-tics and deep reinforcement learning are the most commonly used artificial intelligence methods in the field, but recently conditional learning methods are gaining popularity. The former approaches are coupled with a MOO strat-egy which is most commonly an aggregation function, but Pareto-based strategies are widespread too...
February 10, 2023: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
M V Putilina, N V Teplova
Optimization of the choice of neuroprotective therapy regimens in patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), taking into account the synergism of drug interactions, is a basic approach in clinical practice. Unfortunately, modern pharmacology has no unified way of establishing synergistic spectra of drug actions, which would allow systematic investigation of the effects of combinations of drugs. An approach based on studying detailed mechanisms of action suggested combinations of drugs with the greatest possible synergism (by summation and potentiation of effects) for various directions in the treatment of neurological diseases...
February 2, 2023: Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology
Ghada A Omran, Eman S H Abd Allah, Sherine Ahmed Mohammed, Doaa M El Shehaby
WIN55, 212-2 mesylate is a synthetic cannabinoid (SC) agonist of CB1 and CB2 receptors with much higher affinity to CB1 receptor than tetrahydrocannabinol and many potential therapeutic effects. Few studies have evaluated SCs effects on more complex animal behavior and sex differences in cannabinoids toxicology. The current study was undertaken for determination of behavioral (Open Field test), biochemical (liver and kidney function test plus GABA & Glutamate levels), histopathological and CB1 immunohistochemistry risks of sub-chronic administration of SC WIN55, 212-2 mesylate in male and female mice...
February 7, 2023: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Leslie Citrome, Sheldon Preskorn
In this month's edition of our evidence-based clinical psychopharmacology journal club, Dr. Leslie Citrome will interview Dr. Sheldon Preskorn, lead author of a pivotal trial assessing the efficacy of sublingual dexmedetomidine for the treatment of acute agitation associated with bipolar disorder. This will be a live event at 11:30 AM EST on the 25th of January 2023, hosted by MedscapeLIVE! and QxMD, with opportunity for questions and interaction. Click the 'Full Text Web' button below to register. Pharmacological strategies to address agitation include a number of intramuscular agents...
January 25, 2023: Psychiatry Update Journal Club: An evidence based psychopharmacology series
Grace Cunliffe, Yi Tang Lim, Woori Chae, Sangyong Jung
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, comprising 70% of dementia diagnoses worldwide and affecting 1 in 9 people over the age of 65. However, the majority of its treatments, which predominantly target the cholinergic system, remain insufficient at reversing pathology and act simply to slow the inevitable progression of the disease. The most recent neurotransmitter-targeting drug for AD was approved in 2003, strongly suggesting that targeting neurotransmitter systems alone is unlikely to be sufficient, and that research into alternate treatment avenues is urgently required...
November 28, 2022: Biomedicines
Dawood Sayed, Jay Grider, Natalie Strand, Jonathan M Hagedorn, Steven Falowski, Christopher M Lam, Vinicius Tieppo Francio, Douglas P Beall, Nestor D Tomycz, Justin R Davanzo, Rohit Aiyer, David W Lee, Hemant Kalia, Soun Sheen, Mark N Malinowski, Michael Verdolin, Shashank Vodapally, Alexios Carayannopoulos, Sameer Jain, Nomen Azeem, Reda Tolba, George C Chang Chien, Priyanka Ghosh, Anthony J Mazzola, Kasra Amirdelfan, Krishnan Chakravarthy, Erika Petersen, Michael E Schatman, Timothy Deer
INTRODUCTION: Painful lumbar spinal disorders represent a leading cause of disability in the US and worldwide. Interventional treatments for lumbar disorders are an effective treatment for the pain and disability from low back pain. Although many established and emerging interventional procedures are currently available, there exists a need for a defined guideline for their appropriateness, effectiveness, and safety. OBJECTIVE: The ASPN Back Guideline was developed to provide clinicians the most comprehensive review of interventional treatments for lower back disorders...
2022: Journal of Pain Research
Beau Kilmer, Bryce Pardo, Toyya A Pujol, Jonathan P Caulkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Synthetic opioids, mostly illegally manufactured fentanyl (IMF), were mentioned in 60% of United States (US) drug overdose deaths in 2020, with dramatic variation across states that mirrors variation in IMF supply. However, little is known about IMF markets in the United States and how they are changing. Researchers have previously used data from undercover cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine purchases and seizures to examine how their use and related harms respond to changes in price and availability...
October 2022: Addiction
Peng Xu, Haijie Li, Qiyang Qiu, Xiao Xiao, Yi Qiu, Xiangyu Li, Youmei Wang, Wenhua Zhou, Haowei Shen, Wei Cui
N-isopropylbenzylamine, an isomer of methamphetamine, has been used to adulterate methamphetamine, and distributed as fake "Ice" methamphetamine by illicit manufacturers, leading to a world problem of N-isopropylbenzylamine exposure. Though it is unclear whether N-isopropylbenzylamine has addictive potential like methamphetamine, N-isopropylbenzylamine users reported side effects such as headaches and confusion. However, the pharmacological targets and cytotoxicity of this chemical remained unknown. In this study, in vitro toxicity of N-isopropylbenzylamine and its toxicity-related targets were investigated in SN4741, SH-SY5Y or PC12 cell lines that model neurons...
October 2022: Toxicology
Ben Bogun, Megan McKinnel, Matthew Russell, Janine Watson, Erina Mayo, Brooke Marr, Annie Larsen, Jessica Craig
The most common method of domestic methamphetamine manufacture encountered in New Zealand is the hydrogen iodide (HI) reduction of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine. While the overall method used to manufacture methamphetamine has remained consistent, the processes and chemicals utilized have evolved. Understanding the reason for any changes to methamphetamine manufacturing trends can assist jurisdictions with predicting the potential effects of enforcement and legislative initiatives. This paper presents data and trends amassed from suspected clandestine laboratories, associated with the manufacture of methamphetamine, in New Zealand between 2009 and 2021, along with data on methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, and ephedrine seizures at the border...
January 2023: Journal of Forensic Sciences
2022-12-19 06:57:32
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