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Addiction treatment

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Kristen E Pleil, Jennifer A Rinker, Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Christopher M Mazzone, Nora M McCall, Alexis M Kendra, David P Olson, Bradford B Lowell, Kathleen A Grant, Todd E Thiele, Thomas L Kash
Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies, including alcohol abuse and anxiety. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF have opposing functions in the regulation of emotional and reward-seeking behaviors; thus, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could be involved in the development of these pathologies...
April 2015: Nature Neuroscience
Fulton T Crews, Ryan P Vetreno, Margaret A Broadwater, Donita L Robinson
Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative-motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Mariangela Pucci, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Aranza Wille-Bille, Macarena Soledad Fernández, Mauro Maccarrone, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi, Carlo Cifani, Claudio D'Addario
Alcohol exposure and stressful events in life can induce long-lasting changes in physiology, behavior and gene expression patterns, eventually facilitating the development of psychiatric diseases like alcohol use disorders (AUD). Epigenetic mechanisms have been recently proposed to play a role in the cellular actions of alcohol via chromatin remodeling. Here we discuss interactions between stress and the pharmacological effects of alcohol, including the possibility that early exposure to, or withdrawal of, alcohol might induce stressful effects of their own...
July 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Andrea M F Reiter, Lorenz Deserno, Thomas Kallert, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
Addicted individuals continue substance use despite the knowledge of harmful consequences and often report having no choice but to consume. Computational psychiatry accounts have linked this clinical observation to difficulties in making flexible and goal-directed decisions in dynamic environments via consideration of potential alternative choices. To probe this in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 43) versus healthy volunteers (n = 35), human participants performed an anticorrelated decision-making task during functional neuroimaging...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentina Vengeliene, Hamid R Noori, Rainer Spanagel
Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis...
December 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jessica L Kissler, Brendan M Walker
Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor...
January 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Madhukar H Trivedi, Tracy L Greer, Chad D Rethorst, Thomas Carmody, Bruce D Grannemann, Robrina Walker, Diane Warden, Kathy Shores-Wilson, Mark Stoutenberg, Neal Oden, Meredith Silverstein, Candace Hodgkins, Lee Love, Cindy Seamans, Angela Stotts, Trey Causey, Regina P Szucs-Reed, Paul Rinaldi, Hugh Myrick, Michele Straus, David Liu, Robert Lindblad, Timothy Church, Steven N Blair, Edward V Nunes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate exercise as a treatment for stimulant use disorders. METHODS: The STimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE) study was a randomized clinical trial conducted in 9 residential addiction treatment programs across the United States from July 2010 to February 2013. Of 497 adults referred to the study, 302 met all eligibility criteria, including DSM-IV criteria for stimulant abuse and/or dependence, and were randomized to either a dosed exercise intervention (Exercise) or a health education intervention (Health Education) control, both augmenting treatment as usual and conducted thrice weekly for 12 weeks...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Zev Schuman-Olivier, M Claire Greene, Brandon G Bergman, John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse and dependence rates among emerging adults have increased substantially. While office-based opioid treatments (e.g., buprenorphine/naloxone) have shown overall efficacy, discontinuation rates among emerging adults are high. Abstinence-based residential treatment may serve as a viable alternative, but has seldom been investigated in this age group. METHODS: Emerging adults attending 12-step-oriented residential treatment (N=292; 18-24 years, 74% male, 95% White) were classified into opioid dependent (OD; 25%), opioid misuse (OM; 20%), and no opiate use (NO; 55%) groups...
November 1, 2014: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Sarah J Baracz, Jennifer L Cornish
The role of oxytocin in attenuating the abuse of licit and illicit drugs, including the psychostimulant methamphetamine, has been examined with increased ferocity in recent years. This is largely driven by the potential application of oxytocin as a pharmacotherapy. However, the neural mechanisms by which oxytocin modulates methamphetamine abuse are not well understood. Recent research identified an important role for the accumbens core and subthalamic nucleus in this process, which likely involves an interaction with dopamine, glutamate, GABA, and vasopressin...
October 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jessie L Frijling, Mirjam van Zuiden, Saskia B J Koch, Laura Nawijn, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
Approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neural emotion regulation may be etiologically involved in PTSD development. Oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising avenue for PTSD prevention, as intranasal oxytocin has previously been found to affect emotion regulation networks in healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, we assessed the effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on seed-based amygdala resting-state FC with emotion regulation areas (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)), and salience processing areas (insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)) in 37 individuals within 11 days post trauma...
April 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tando Maduna, Emilie Audouard, Doulaye Dembélé, Nejma Mouzaoui, David Reiss, Dominique Massotte, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff
Background: Microglia activation contributes to chronic pain and to the adverse effects of opiate use such as analgesic tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Both mu opioid receptor (MOR) encoded by Oprm1/OPRM1 gene and toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been reported to mediate these morphine effects and a current question is whether microglia express the Oprm1 transcript and MOR protein. The aim of this study was to characterize Oprm1 -MOR expression in naive murine and human microglia, combining transcriptomics datasets previously published by other groups with our own imaging study using the Cx3cr1-eGFP-MOR-mCherry reporter mouse line...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Andry Andrianarivelo, Estefani Saint-Jour, Roman Walle, Pierre Trifilieff, Peter Vanhoutte
Drug addiction is a chronic and relapsing disorder that leads to compulsive drug intake despite deleterious consequences. By increasing dopamine (DA) in the mesolimbic system, drugs of abuse hijack the brain reward circuitry, which is critical for the development of enduring behavioral alterations. DA mainly acts onto DA D1 (D1R) and D2 (D2R) receptor subtypes, which are positively and negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, respectively. Extensive research has aimed at targeting these receptors for the treatment of addiction, however this often results in unwanted side-effects due to the implication of DA receptors in numerous physiological functions...
December 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Na Ye, Bang Li, Qi Mao, Eric A Wold, Sheng Tian, John A Allen, Jia Zhou
While G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recognized as pivotal drug targets involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, the majority of GPCRs including orphan GPCRs (oGPCRs) are unexploited. GPR88, a brain-specific oGPCR with particularly robust expression in the striatum, regulates diverse brain and behavioral functions including cognition, mood, movement control and reward-based learning, and is thus emerging as a novel drug target for CNS disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and addiction...
December 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Hiroki Ishiguro, Kunio Miyake, Koichi Tabata, Chiaki Mochizuki, Takeshi Sakurai, Emmanuel S Onaivi
AIMS: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. METHODS: We analyzed gene expression patterns of neural molecules to find a common addiction pathway dependent on Nrcam function. We examined monoaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in the brains of Nrcam knockout mice following treatment with methamphetamine (METH) or saline (SAL) using micro-array gene expression analysis, which was replicated using TaqMan gene expression analysis...
December 13, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Carmen Ferrer-Pérez, Tamara Escrivá Martinez, Sandra Montagud-Romero, Raúl Ballestín, Marina D Reguilón, José Miñarro, Marta Rodríguez-Arias
It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode...
2018: PloS One
Tomáš Zima
Chronic alcohol consumption is a world-wide socioeconomic problem. Three metabolic pathways of ethanol were describe in human - alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS, CYP2E1) and catalase. Ethanol directly bounds to different molecules (e.g. etylglucuronid) and ethanol per se and its metabolites have toxic effect on biological stuctures. Alcohol abuse is well known for its liver diseases e.g. cirrhosis (the most frequent cause in Europe and US) and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic alcohol comsumption leads to cardiovascular diseases (e...
December 2018: EJIFCC
Vitria Adisetiyo, Corinne E McGill, William H DeVries, Jens H Jensen, Colleen A Hanlon, Joseph A Helpern
BACKGROUND: Iron homeostasis is a critical biological process that may be disrupted in cocaine use disorder (CUD). In the brain, iron is required for neural processes involved in addiction and can be lethal to cells if unbound, especially in excess. Moreover, recent studies have implicated elevated brain iron in conditions of prolonged psychostimulant exposure. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine iron in basal ganglia reward regions of individuals with CUD using an advanced imaging method called magnetic field correlation (MFC) imaging...
November 22, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Lisa M Schwartz, Steven Woloshin
Importance: Manufacturers, companies, and health care professionals and organizations use an array of promotional activities to sell and increase market share of their products and services. These activities seek to shape public and clinician beliefs about laboratory testing, the benefits and harms of prescription drugs, and some disease definitions. Objective: To review the marketing of prescription drugs, disease awareness campaigns, health services, and laboratory tests and the related consequences and regulation in the United States over a 20-year period (1997-2016)...
January 1, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nektaria Misailidi, Sotiris Athanaselis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Maria Katselou, Yannis Dotsikas, Chara Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Papoutsis
Purpose: Fentanyl analogues are popular in recent years among drug addicts and have been related to many overdoses and deaths worldwide. Furanylfentanyl, ocfentanil, acetylfentanyl and butyrfentanyl are among the most common of these drugs. Methods for the determination of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in biological samples do not exist, and therefore, their development would be extremely useful for routine toxicological analysis. Methods: A GC-MS method was developed and fully validated for the determination of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil in whole blood...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
George R Uhl, George F Koob, Jennifer Cable
Substance and alcohol use disorders impose large health and economic burdens on individuals, families, communities, and society. Neither prevention nor treatment efforts are effective in all individuals. Results are often modest. Advances in neuroscience and addiction research have helped to describe the neurobiological changes that occur when a person transitions from recreational substance use to a substance use disorder or addiction. Understanding both the drivers and consequences of substance use in vulnerable populations, including those whose brains are still maturing, has revealed behavioral and biological characteristics that can increase risks of addiction...
January 15, 2019: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
2019-02-03 12:29:37
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