Lee Peyton, Alfredo Oliveros, Doo-Sup Choi, Mi-Hyeon Jang
Psychiatric illness is a prevalent and highly debilitating disorder, and more than 50% of the general population in both middle- and high-income countries experience at least one psychiatric disorder at some point in their lives. As we continue to learn how pervasive psychiatric episodes are in society, we must acknowledge that psychiatric disorders are not solely relegated to a small group of predisposed individuals but rather occur in significant portions of all societal groups. Several distinct brain regions have been implicated in neuropsychiatric disease...
March 30, 2021: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Jana Ruda-Kucerova, Petra Amchova, Filip Siska, Yousef Tizabi
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological manipulations of glutamatergic ionotropic receptors have been suggested as a promising target for addiction treatment. Antagonists of AMPA/kainate receptors were shown to reduce alcohol intake or alcohol-seeking in various animal models. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NBQX, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, on methamphetamine (METH) and nicotine self-administration in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer METH (0...
April 13, 2021: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Camilla L Nord, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Kristen A Lindquist, Yina Ma, Lindsey Marwood, Ajay B Satpute, Tim Dalgleish
BACKGROUND: Influential theories predict that antidepressant medication and psychological therapies evoke distinct neural changes. AIMS: To test the convergence and divergence of antidepressant- and psychotherapy-evoked neural changes, and their overlap with the brain's affect network. METHOD: We employed a quantitative synthesis of three meta-analyses (n = 4206). First, we assessed the common and distinct neural changes evoked by antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, by contrasting two comparable meta-analyses reporting the neural effects of these treatments...
February 25, 2021: British Journal of Psychiatry
Yanaira Alonso-Caraballo, Suman K Guha, Elena H Chartoff
Drugs of abuse and highly palatable foods (e.g. high fat or sweet foods) have powerful reinforcing effects, which can lead to compulsive and addictive drives to ingest these substances to the point of psychopathology and self-harm--specifically the development of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and obesity. Both SUD and binge-like overeating can be defined as disorders in which the salience of the reward (food or drug) becomes exaggerated relative to, and at the expense of, other rewards that promote well-being...
January 2021: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Carmen Rodríguez-Rivera, Miguel M Garcia, Miguel Molina-Álvarez, Carmen González-Martín, Carlos Goicoechea
In the last years, clusterin, a challenging and paradoxical apolipoprotein, has been of growing interest amongst a rising number of scientists. This enigmatic protein is present in all fluids of the organism besides within the intracellular matrix, and it plays diverse, and at times contrary, roles in a growing number of pathologies. It seems to vary its location and function to assure cellular survival being cytoprotective hence its significance in neuroprotection and cancer along with chemotherapy resistance...
February 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Benoît Schreck, Nicolas Wagneur, Pascal Caillet, Marie Gérardin, Jennyfer Cholet, Michel Spadari, Nicolas Authier, Juliana Tournebize, Marion Gaillard, Anais Serre, Louise Carton, Stéphanie Pain, Pascale Jolliet, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a variant of cyclical vomiting syndrome in a context of chronic cannabis usage. Our aim was to compare French cases to those identified in the international literature in order to further our knowledge of the clinical criteria, pathophysiology and treatments for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. METHODS: We analysed cases reported in the international literature up to 30 June 2017, obtained from the MEDLINE, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library databases; we selected relevant articles based on title and abstract...
January 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Aaron J Ruberto, Marco L A Sivilotti, Savannah Forrester, Andrew K Hall, Frances M Crawford, Andrew G Day
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the cause or optimal treatment of hyperemesis in habitual cannabis users. Anecdotal evidence supports the use of haloperidol over traditional antiemetics for this newly recognized disorder. We compare haloperidol with ondansetron for cannabis hyperemesis syndrome. METHODS: We randomized cannabis users with active emesis to either haloperidol (with a nested randomization to either 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) or ondansetron 8 mg intravenously in a triple-blind fashion...
November 5, 2020: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Bernhard Luscher, Mengyang Feng, Sarah J Jefferson
There has been much recent progress in understanding of the mechanism of ketamine's rapid and enduring antidepressant effects. Here we review recent insights from clinical and preclinical studies, with special emphasis of ketamine-induced changes in GABAergic synaptic transmission that are considered essential for its antidepressant therapeutic effects. Subanesthetic ketamine is now understood to exert its initial action by selectively blocking a subset of NMDA receptors on GABAergic interneurons, which results in disinhibition of glutamatergic target neurons, a surge in extracellular glutamate and correspondingly elevated glutamatergic synaptic transmission...
2020: Advances in Pharmacology
Eric Hansen, Chitra Nadagoundla, Chong Wang, Austin Miller, Amy Allen Case
BACKGROUND: Outpatients with cancer commonly have nonmedical opioid use (NMOU) behaviors and use opioids to dull emotional and existential suffering. Buprenorphine is often used for cancer pain due to less reported euphoria when compared to other opioids. METHODS: A retrospective review was done in patients who were prescribed buprenorphine for cancer pain. Pain scores were reported on a Likert pain scale of 1 to 10. Nonmedical opioid use was defined as patients taking opioids for emotional pain at or above the maximum prescribed amount...
May 2020: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Scott A Langenecker, Leah R Kling, Natania A Crane, Stephanie M Gorka, Robin Nusslock, Katherine S F Damme, Jessica Weafer, Harriet de Wit, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Drug addiction and dependence continue as an unresolved source of morbidity and mortality. Two approaches to identifying risk for abuse and addiction are psychopharmacological challenge studies and neuroimaging experiments. The present study combined these two approaches by examining associations between self-reported euphoria or liking after a dose of d-amphetamine and neural-based responses to anticipation of a monetary reward. METHODS: Healthy young adults (N = 73) aged 19 and 26, without any history of alcohol/substance dependence completed four laboratory sessions in which they received oral d-amphetamine (20 mg) or placebo, and completed drug effect questionnaires...
January 1, 2020: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Steven C Eastlack, Elyse M Cornett, Alan D Kaye
Kratom, or Mitragyna, is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, with unique pharmacological properties. It is commonly consumed by preparing the leaves into decoction or tea, or by grinding them into a powder. Recent evidence has revealed that kratom has physiological effects similar to opioids, including pain relief and euphoria, as well as stimulant properties, which together raise potential concern for dependence and addiction. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that the prevalence of kratom use is increasing in many parts of the world, raising important considerations for healthcare providers...
June 2020: Pain and Therapy
Shannon Inglet, Bradly Winter, Sarah E Yost, Sophia Entringer, Anh Lian, Meryl Biksacky, Renee D Pitt, Whitney Mortensen
OBJECTIVE: To compile and synthesize the available literature describing medical cannabis use across various disease states. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar searches were conducted using MeSH and/or keywords. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Studies were included if they described the use of cannabis-based products and medications in the treatment of a predefined list of disease states in humans and were published in English...
November 2020: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Min-Ho Nam, Woojin Won, Kyung-Seok Han, C Justin Lee
μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors that is critical for analgesia, reward, and euphoria. MOR is distributed in various brain regions, including the hippocampus, where traditionally, it is believed to be localized mainly at the presynaptic terminals of the GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to exert a strong disinhibitory effect on excitatory pyramidal neurons. However, recent intensive research has uncovered the existence of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, shedding light on how astrocytic MOR participates in opioid signaling via glia-neuron interaction in the hippocampus...
January 2021: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Hiromitsu Imai, Misaki Morita, Hajime Morita, Tetsuji Ohyama, Shimako Tanaka, Shinya Uchida, Noriyuki Namiki, Naoto Uemura, Kyoichi Ohashi
AIMS: Opioids are commonly used analgesics for moderate to severe pain, but levels of drug effect vary among individuals. As for the mechanisms underlying these individual differences, there have been reports suggesting effects of polymorphisms in the gene encoding μ-opioid receptor ( OPRM1 ). However, whether these polymorphisms affect the actions of μ-opioid receptor partial agonists has yet to be determined. This study aimed to assess differences in the pharmacological actions of buprenorphine, a μ-opioid receptor partial agonist, due to a polymorphism (A118G, rs1799971) in the OPRM1 gene in humans...
November 2020: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giovanni Martinotti, Marco Di Nicola, Filippo Ruggeri, Gianluigi Conte, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Luigi Janiri
Pathological gambling or gambling disorder has been defined by the DSM-5 as a behavioral addiction. To date, its pathophysiology is not completely understood and there is no FDA-approved treatment for gambling disorders. Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system and it has been recently involved in the pathophysiology of addictive behaviors. In this paper, we review the current literature on a class of drugs that act as modulating glutamate system in PG. A total of 19 studies have been included, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria...
2014: BioMed Research International
Etna J E Engeli, Niklaus Zoelch, Andreas Hock, Carlos Nordt, Lea M Hulka, Matthias Kirschner, Milan Scheidegger, Fabrizio Esposito, Markus R Baumgartner, Anke Henning, Erich Seifritz, Boris B Quednow, Marcus Herdener
Cocaine addiction is characterized by overwhelming craving for the substance, which drives its escalating use despite adverse consequences. Animal models suggest a disrupted glutamate homeostasis in the nucleus accumbens to underlie addiction-like behavior. After chronic administration of cocaine, rodents show decreased levels of accumbal glutamate, whereas drug-seeking reinstatement is associated with enhanced glutamatergic transmission. However, due to technical obstacles, the role of disturbed glutamate homeostasis for cocaine addiction in humans remains only partially understood, and accordingly, no approved pharmacotherapy exists...
June 29, 2020: Molecular Psychiatry
Silas A Buck, Mary M Torregrossa, Ryan W Logan, Zachary Freyberg
Projections of ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA) neurons to the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens have been increasingly implicated as integral to the behavioral and physiological changes involved in the development of substance use disorders (SUDs). Recently, many of these nucleus accumbens-projecting DA neurons were found to also release the neurotransmitter glutamate. This glutamate co-release from DA neurons is critical in mediating the effect of drugs of abuse on addiction-related behaviors. Potential mechanisms underlying the role(s) of dopamine/glutamate co-release in contributing to SUDs are unclear...
March 2021: FEBS Journal
Wei-Ning Jiang, Xiao Jing, Man Li, Hong Deng, Tao Jiang, Ke-Zhao Xiong, Ying Chen, Xiao-Fei Wang, Quan-Jun Wang
Corydalis is a Chinese herb that has been used in China for hundreds of years for analgesic and other purposes. Corydaline and l-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) are the main active ingredients of Corydalis. This study was aimed to study the potential utility of corydaline and l-THP in the treatment of opioid abuse and addiction and explore the possible mechanisms underlying their pharmacological actions. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was used to evaluate the rewarding effects of morphine and Western-blot immunoreactive assays were used to evaluate morphine-induced changes in dopamine D2 receptor and GluA1 AMPA receptor and GluA2 AMPA receptor expression in the brain of rats...
July 25, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Erin N Bobeck, QiLiang Chen, Michael M Morgan, Susan L Ingram
Opioid inhibition of presynaptic GABA release in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) activates the descending antinociception pathway. Tolerance to repeated opioid administration is associated with upregulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. The objective of these studies was to test the hypothesis that adenylyl cyclase contributes to opioid tolerance by modulating GABA neurotransmission. Repeated microinjections of morphine or the adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 into the vlPAG decreased morphine antinociception as would be expected with the development of tolerance...
August 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology
Hanna Viisanen, Tuomas O Lilius, Boriss Sagalajev, Pekka Rauhala, Eija Kalso, Antti Pertovaara
Descending facilitatory circuitry that involves the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) exerts a significant role in the development of antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia following chronic morphine treatment. The role of the RVM in the development of antinociceptive tolerance to oxycodone, another clinically used strong opioid, is not yet known. Ketamine, an N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, attenuates opioid antinociceptive tolerance, but its effect on RVM cell discharge in opioid-tolerant animals is not known...
September 1, 2020: Journal of Neurophysiology
2020-08-28 23:57:05
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