Addiction treatment

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Alexander Reisinger, Susanne Vogt, Anna Essl, Ines Rauch, Florian Bangerl, Philipp Eller, Gerald Hackl
BACKGROUND: Poppers are nitrite-containing liquids, which are inhaled for their aphrodisiac and hallucinogenic effects. Despite some cases of severe poisonings, poppers are often perceived as harmless by consumers. Inhalation and ingestion of poppers are well known, but, according to our literature review, intravenous abuse has not been reported before. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man injected poppers intravenously for recreational purposes. He then suffered from dyspnoea and general discomfort...
March 2020: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Mark Willenbring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2020: Addiction
Elizabeth M Oliva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2020: Addiction
Nafisseh S Warner, Matthew A Warner, Julie L Cunningham, Halena M Gazelka, W Michael Hooten, Bhanuprakash Kolla, David O Warner
The use of buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist, for the management of chronic pain and/or opioid use disorder is increasing. As such, medical providers will more frequently encounter patients on this therapy. In this paper, we synthesize existing knowledge (derived through keyword searches using MEDLINE databases) in a novel conceptual framework for patients on buprenorphine presenting with acute pain or for those requiring surgical or invasive procedures. This framework is based on three unique domains: the patient, the features of the acute pain insult, and the environment...
February 12, 2020: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Kenneth Blum, David Baron, Thomas McLaughlin, Mark S Gold
The consensus of the current literature strongly supports the concept that brain neurotransmitters, and second messengers involved in the net release of dopamine in the mesolimbic region, especially the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc), is directly linked to motivation, anti-stress, incentive salience (wanting), and well-being. The role of dopamine in terms of alcohol withdrawal symptomology, cocaine craving behavior, dopamine -condensation products (TIQs), and more recently, the genetic aspects of drug-seeking and pro-dopamine regulation, provide compelling evidence of the relevant molecular neurological correlates of dopaminergic /endorphinergic mechanisms in reward circuitry due to genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic insults...
February 14, 2020: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Rita Nieto Montesinos, Brice Moulari, Jessica Gromand, Arnaud Beduneau, Alf Lamprecht, Yann Pellequer
The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, expressed at high levels at the blood-brain barrier, exerts a profound effect on the disposition of various therapeutic compounds in the brain. A rapid and efficient modulation of this efflux transporter could enhance the distribution of its substrates and thereby improve central nervous system pharmacotherapies. This study explored the impact of the intravenous coadministration of two P-glycoprotein modulators, tariquidar and elacridar, on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of loperamide, a P-glycoprotein substrate probe, in rats...
April 2014: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
October 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michael L Smith, Daniel C Nichols, Paula Underwood, Zachary Fuller, Matthew A Moser, Ron Flegel, David A Gorelick, Matthew N Newmeyer, Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Legitimate use of legal intranasal decongestants containing l-methamphetamine may complicate interpretation of urine drug tests positive for amphetamines. Our study hypotheses were that commonly used immunoassays would produce no false-positive results and a recently developed enantiomer-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure would find no d-amphetamine or d-methamphetamine in urine following controlled Vicks VapoInhaler administration at manufacturer's recommended doses. To evaluate these hypotheses, 22 healthy adults were each administered one dose (two inhalations in each nostril) of a Vicks VapoInhaler every 2 h for 10 h on Day 1 (six doses), followed by a single dose on Day 2...
October 2014: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Brandon Presley, Bob Bianchi, John Coleman, Fran Diamond, Gerry McNally
Clandestine chemists have demonstrated an ability to convert commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations to methamphetamine. Some of these formulations have properties that manufacturers claim limit or block the extraction of pseudoephedrine and its direct conversion to methamphetamine. In this study, 3 commercially available pseudoephedrine formulations were evaluated for ease of extraction and conversion to methamphetamine using a common chemistry technique called the one-pot method that is frequently employed by clandestine chemists...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hichem Moulahoum, Figen Zihnioglu, Suna Timur, Hakan Coskunol
Substance use disorders are a widely recognized problem, which affects various levels of communities and influenced the world socioeconomically. Its source is deeply embedded in the global population. In order to fight against such an adversary, governments have spared no efforts in implementing substance abuse treatment centers and funding research to develop treatments and prevention procedures. In this review, we will discuss the use of immunological-based treatments and detection kit technologies. We will be detailing the steps followed to produce performant antibodies (antigens, carriers, and adjuvants) focusing on cocaine and methamphetamine as examples...
January 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Saeed Ahmed, Ramya Bachu, Padma Kotapati, Mahwish Adnan, Rizwan Ahmed, Umer Farooq, Hina Saeed, Ali Mahmood Khan, Aarij Zubair, Iqra Qamar, Gulshan Begum
Objective: Gabapentin (GBP) is an anticonvulsant medication that is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS) and posttherapeutic neuralgia. GBP is commonly prescribed off-label for psychiatric disorders despite the lack of strong evidence. However, there is growing evidence that GBP may be effective and clinically beneficial in both psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders. This review aimed to perform a systematic analysis of peer-reviewed published literature on the efficacy of GBP in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
V E Medvedev, O N Tereshchenko, N V Kost, A Yu Ter-Israelyan, E V Gushanskaya, I K Chobanu, O Yu Sokolov, N F Myasoedov
AIM: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of monotherapy with phenazepam to complex treatment with the peptide preparation selank and phenazepam in patients with anxiety disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Authors explored the anxiolytic effect and tolerability of monotherapy with phenazepam (30 patients) and complex treatment with selank and phenazepam (40 patients) in anxiety-phobic, hypochondriac and somatoform disorders (ICD-10 items F40.2-9, F41.1-9, F45.0-2)...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Anastasiya Kasian, Timur Kolomin, Lyudmila Andreeva, Elena Bondarenko, Nikolay Myasoedov, Petr Slominsky, Maria Shadrina
It was shown that the anxiolytic effect of Selank is comparable to that of classical benzodiazepine drugs and that the basis of their mechanism of action may be similar. These data suggest that the presence of Selank may change the action of classical benzodiazepine drugs. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the anxiolytic activity of Selank and diazepam in rats both under conditions of unpredictable chronic mild stress and in its absence, after the individual and combined administration of these compounds using the elevated plus maze test...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
Charles P Schaefer, Margaret E Tome, Thomas P Davis
Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood-brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood brain barrier plays a central role in both the benefits and risks of opioid use. The complex physiological responses to opioids that provide the benefits and drive the abuse also needs to be considered in the resolution of the opioid epidemic...
November 29, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carolina Lança Pereira, Diana Dias da Silva
BACKGROUND: Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine), mainly found in the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii), is one of the oldest known hallucinogenic agents that influence human and animal behavior, but its psychoactive mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to fully review pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mescaline, focusing on the in vivo and in vitro metabolic profile of the drug and its implications for the variability of response...
2019: Current Molecular Pharmacology
David M Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen, Deborah K Dulson
This study investigated the effect of the racemic β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) precursor, R,S-1,3-butanediol (BD), on time-trial (TT) performance and tolerability. A repeated-measures, randomized, crossover study was conducted in nine trained male cyclists (age, 26.7 ± 5.2 years; body mass, 69.6 ± 8.4 kg; height, 1.82 ± 0.09 m; body mass index, 21.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2; VO2peak,63.9 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; Wmax, 389.3 ± 50.4 W). Participants ingested 0.35 g/kg of BD or placebo 30 min before and 60 min during 85 min of steady-state exercise, which preceded a ∼25- to 35-min TT (i...
September 1, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
John W Powell, Susan Erin Presnell
Loperamide is an over-the-counter, μ-opioid receptor agonist commonly used as an antidiarrheal agent. Loperamide was thought to have minimal abuse potential due to its low bioavailability and limited central nervous system activity; however, there have been increasing reports of loperamide misuse in supratherapeutic doses to achieve euphoria and/or avoid opioid withdrawal. A literature review suggests a rise in loperamide abuse was inevitable, with substantial increases in reported cases over the last decade...
November 2019: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Souleiman El Balkhi, Caroline Monchaud, Frédéric Herault, Hélène Géniaux, Franck Saint-Marcoux
BACKGROUND: Scientific data on the psychopharmacological effects of new psychoactive substances (NPSs) are scarce. Web fora contain a wealth of information posted by users as trip reports (TRs), but the reliability of the reports remains questionable because of the nature of the used molecule and the potential for dose inaccuracies. We focused on the TRs of designer benzodiazepine (DBZD) users since their psychopharmacological effects are similar to prescription benzodiazepines (BZDs)...
January 23, 2020: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Jeffrey Gudin, Jeffrey Fudin
Buprenorphine is a Schedule III opioid analgesic with unique pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties that may be preferable to those of Schedule II full μ-opioid receptor agonists. The structure of buprenorphine allows for multimechanistic interactions with opioid receptors μ, δ, κ, and opioid receptor-like 1. Buprenorphine is considered a partial agonist with very high binding affinity for the μ-opioid receptor, an antagonist with high binding affinity for the δ- and κ-opioid receptors, and an agonist with low binding affinity for the opioid receptor-like 1 receptor...
January 28, 2020: Pain and Therapy
Jeffrey M Witkin, Anna E Martin, Lalit K Golani, Nina Z Xu, Jodi L Smith
Conventional antidepressants (biogenic amine mechanisms) are not fully efficacious (e.g., symptoms remain after treatment, not all patients respond), produce effects only after weeks of daily dosing, and do not impact all disease symptoms. In contrast, a new class of antidepressants has been emerging since 2006 that has demonstrated rapid onset, large effect size, activity after only a single or few dose applications, and positive impact in treatment refractory patients and against some treatment-resistant symptoms (e...
2019: Advances in Pharmacology
2020-01-02 20:42:00
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