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Addiction treatment

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Sheng-Tzung Tsai, Hock-Kean Liew, Hao-Ming Li, Shinn-Zong Lin, Shin-Yuan Chen
Drug and alcohol addiction has become an emerging public health issue and is a great burden to patients, their families, and society. It is characterized by high relapse rates and significant morbidity and mortality, and most available treatments result in only modest improvement. These findings highlight the necessity for new approaches to treat addiction. Scientific reports in the past two decades suggest that addiction involves impaired neural plasticity and decreased hippocampal neurogenesis. Stem cell therapy and its derived neurotrophic factors can potentially target the underlying pathophysiology of addiction...
July 4, 2019: Cell Transplantation
Thomas Larrieu, Sophie Layé
The central nervous system (CNS) has the highest concentration of lipids in the organism after adipose tissue. Among these lipids, the brain is particularly enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) represented by the omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) series. These PUFAs include arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. PUFAs have received substantial attention as being relevant to many brain diseases, including anxiety and depression. This review addresses an important question in the area of nutritional neuroscience regarding the importance of ω3 PUFAs in the prevention and/or treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, mainly depression and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Norah Mulvaney-Day, Brent J Gibbons, Shums Alikhan, Mustafa Karakus
Objectives. To assess the impact of the 2008 Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) on mental and substance use disorder services in the private, large group employer-sponsored insurance market in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database from January 2005 through September 2015 by using population-level interrupted time series regressions to determine whether parity implementation was associated with utilization and spending outcomes...
June 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Peter J Hamilton, Eric J Nestler
As an individual becomes addicted to a drug of abuse, nerve cells within the brain's reward circuitry adapt at the epigenetic level during the course of repeated drug exposure. These drug-induced epigenetic adaptations mediate enduring changes in brain function which contribute to life-long, drug-related behavioral abnormalities that define addiction. Targeting these epigenetic alterations will enhance our understanding of the biological basis of addiction and might even yield more effective anti-addiction therapies...
June 27, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Clara Pérez-Mañá, Esther Papaseit, Francina Fonseca, Adriana Farré, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Fentanyl, fentanyl analogs, and other new synthetic opioids (NSO) have burst onto the illegal drug market as new psychoactive substances (NPS). They are often sold as heroin to unsuspecting users and produce euphoria through their agonist action on μ- opioid receptors. Their high consumption, often combined with other substances, has led to multiple intoxications during recent years. In some countries, such as the United States, the consumption of opioids, whether for medical or recreational purposes, has become epidemic and is considered a public health problem...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fabrizio Schifano, Laura Orsolini, G Duccio Papanti, John M Corkery
Novel psychoactive substances include synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, psychedelic phenethylamines, novel stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine-like dissociatives, piperazines, GABA-A/B receptor agonists, a range of prescribed medications, psychoactive plants/herbs, and a large series of performance and image enhancing drugs. Users are typically attracted by these substances due to their intense psychoactive effects and likely lack of detection in routine drug screenings...
February 2015: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Tania Ahuja, Ofole Mgbako, Caroline Katzman, Allison Grossman
This case report describes the development of withdrawal from phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist. Although phenibut is not an FDA-approved medication, it is available through online retailers as a nootropic supplement. There are reports of dependence in patients that misuse phenibut. We report a case in which a patient experienced withdrawal symptoms from phenibut and was successfully treated with a baclofen taper. This case report highlights the development of phenibut use disorder with coingestion of alcohol and potential management for phenibut withdrawal...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Matthew I Hardman, Juraj Sprung, Toby N Weingarten
Phenibut is a glutamic acid derivative with activity on the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B, A, and B-phenethylamine receptors. It is prescribed in former Communist Bloc countries for anxiolysis and related psychiatric disorders. It can be easily obtained in Western countries and is thought to have abuse potential. Abrupt discontinuation has been reported to precipitate an abstinence syndrome. A review of the literature identified 22 reported cases, many of which were notable for severe psychomotor agitation and requirements for aggressive pharmacologic treatment...
May 20, 2019: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Kathleen M Carroll, Elise E DeVito, Sarah W Yip, Charla Nich, Mehmet Sofuoglu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Concurrent use of cocaine and opioids is a persistent and challenging problem, particularly within methadone maintenance settings, and there are no approved pharmacotherapies for this population. Galantamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, was found in a randomized clinical trial to reduce cocaine use among methadone-maintained individuals who were also cocaine dependent. Because of the potential of galantamine to reduce multiple drugs of abuse, it may also reduce opioid use...
June 4, 2019: American Journal on Addictions
Maurizio Coppola, Giuseppe Sacchetto, Raffaella Mondola
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder persisting in adulthood in 40-60% of cases. Clinical and neuroimaging studies suggest that patients affected by both drug addiction and ADHD show higher rates of craving for drug than patients without ADHD. We designed a pilot open-label study to investigate the effects of ADHD on craving for heroin in methadone maintenance therapy patients. METHOD: Patients were recruited from outpatient facilities in an addiction treatment unit in the municipality of Alba, Italy...
January 2019: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Eric L Garland, Matthew O Howard
Contemporary advances in addiction neuroscience have paralleled increasing interest in the ancient mental training practice of mindfulness meditation as a potential therapy for addiction. In the past decade, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been studied as a treatment for an array addictive behaviors, including drinking, smoking, opioid misuse, and use of illicit substances like cocaine and heroin. This article reviews current research evaluating MBIs as a treatment for addiction, with a focus on findings pertaining to clinical outcomes and biobehavioral mechanisms...
April 18, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Hildi Hagedorn, Marie Kenny, Adam J Gordon, Princess E Ackland, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Wei Yu, Alex H S Harris
BACKGROUND: In the US, emergency room visits and overdoses related to prescription opioids have soared and the rates of illicit opioid use, including heroin and fentanyl, are increasing. Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, higher HIV and HCV infection rates, and criminal behavior. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT; methadone and buprenorphine) is proven to be effective in treating OUD and decreasing its negative consequences. While the efficacy of OAT has been established, too few providers prescribe OAT to patients with OUD due to patient, provider, or system factors...
December 13, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Robin Newhouse, Michelle Janney, Anne Gilbert, Jon Agley, Giorgos Bakoyannis, Melora Ferren, C Daniel Mullins, Meg Johantgen, Rhonda Schwindt, Kelli Thoele
BACKGROUND: Alarming rates of unhealthy alcohol, non-prescription drug, and tobacco use highlight the preventable health risks of substance abuse and the urgent need to activate clinicians to recognize and treat risky use. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is an efficacious and effective processes to identify, reduce and prevent risky use of substances. This paper describes a study protocol testing implementation of a toolkit to enhance use of SBIRT in acute care settings to recognize and address patient risky alcohol, drug, and tobacco use...
December 27, 2018: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Madeleine M Southey, Trent Rees, Margaret Rolfe, Sabrina Pit
BACKGROUND: Residential opioid rehabilitation aims to improve the mental health and quality of life of opioid users through abstinence and residential program participation. This study aimed to determine the depression, anxiety, stress and quality of life amongst maintenance to abstinence (MTA) program residents. Secondary study aims were to assess the personal characteristics of MTA clients, addiction and risk taking behaviours, factors associated with program completion, as well as to assess the reliable change in participants' mental health and quality of life on exit...
February 4, 2019: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Jennifer McNeely, Andrea B Troxel, Hillary V Kunins, Donna Shelley, Joshua D Lee, Alexander Walley, Zoe M Weinstein, John Billings, Nichola J Davis, Roopa Kalyanaraman Marcello, Bruce R Schackman, Charles Barron, Luke Bergmann
BACKGROUND: Treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) is highly effective, yet it remains dramatically underutilized. Individuals with OUD have disproportionately high rates of hospitalization and low rates of addiction treatment. Hospital-based addiction consult services offer a potential solution by using multidisciplinary teams to evaluate patients, initiate medication for addiction treatment (MAT) in the hospital, and connect patients to post-discharge care. We are studying the effectiveness of an addiction consult model [Consult for Addiction Treatment and Care in Hospitals (CATCH)] as a strategy for engaging patients with OUD in treatment as the program rolls out in the largest municipal hospital system in the US...
February 19, 2019: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Paul J Joudrey, Mat Kladney, Chinazo O Cunningham, Marcus A Bachhuber
BACKGROUND: Primary care provider skills such as screening, longitudinal monitoring, and medication management are generalizable to prescribing alcohol use disorder (AUD) pharmacotherapy. The association between primary care engagement (i.e., longitudinal utilization of primary care services) and prescribing of AUD pharmacotherapy is unknown. METHODS: We examined a 5-year (2010-2014) retrospective cohort of patients with AUD, 18 years and older, at an urban academic medical center in the Bronx, NY, USA...
May 1, 2019: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
Scott J Moeller, Adam W Hanley, Eric L Garland
BACKGROUND: The USA is currently enduring an opioid crisis. Identifying cost-effective, easy-to-implement behavioral measures that predict treatment outcomes in opioid misusers is a crucial scientific, therapeutic, and epidemiological goal. METHODS: The current study used a mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal design to test whether a behavioral choice task, previously validated in stimulant users, was associated with increased opioid misuse severity at baseline, and whether it predicted change in opioid misuse severity at follow-up...
April 15, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Henk van Steenbergen, Marie Eikemo, Siri Leknes
The opioid system regulates affective processing, including pain, pleasure, and reward. Restricting the role of this system to hedonic modulation may be an underestimation, however. Opioid receptors are distributed widely in the human brain, including the more "cognitive" regions in the frontal and parietal lobes. Nonhuman animal research points to opioid modulation of cognitive and decision-making processes. We review emerging evidence on whether acute opioid drug modulation in healthy humans can influence cognitive function, such as how we choose between actions of different values and how we control our behavior in the face of distracting information...
April 8, 2019: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yongbin Li, Qiang Li, Wei Li, Jiajie Chen, Feng Hu, Yan Liu, Xuan Wei, Jia Zhu, Jierong Liu, Jianjun Ye, Hong Shi, Yarong Wang, Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor TaqIA gene is related to reward response, relapse risks and effect of therapy for drug addiction. Whether the cue-induced craving and brain response was related to dopamine D2 receptor TaqIA gene is unknown. METHODS: Forty-nine male heroin-dependent individuals [31 with A1 allele of the TaqIA (A1+), 18 A2 allele carriers (A1-)] under methadone maintenance treatment and 20 healthy control subjects performed a heroin cue-reactivity task during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 1, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Marie Batail, Thomas Fovet, Pierre Philip, Michel Cermolacce, Aurore Jaumard-Hakoun, François Vialatte
This article proposes what we call an "EEG-Copeia" for neurofeedback, like the "Pharmacopeia" for psychopharmacology. This paper proposes to define an "EEG-Copeia" as an organized list of scientifically validated EEG markers, characterized by a specific association with an identified cognitive process, that define a psychophysiological unit of analysis useful for mental or brain disorder evaluation and treatment. A characteristic of EEG neurofeedback for mental and brain disorders is that it targets a EEG markers related to a supposed cognitive process, whereas conventional treatments target clinical manifestations...
May 16, 2019: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
2019-06-19 17:41:04
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