Neurotransmitters and related Papers: medical and naturopahic | Page 2

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By Christopher Cook, BA,CADC, SAP Addiction professional. LPC, CADC, CRNP- student, Interventionist, project manager, owner, Director, eval/refer for SUDs/Eating D/o's
Devrim Kilinc
The regulation of synaptic strength forms the basis of learning and memory, and is a key factor in understanding neuropathological processes that lead to cognitive decline and dementia. While the mechanical aspects of neuronal development, particularly during axon growth and guidance, have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the mechanical aspects of synapse formation and plasticity. It is established that a filamentous actin network with complex spatiotemporal behavior controls the dendritic spine shape and size, which is thought to be crucial for activity-dependent synapse plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ilse Delint-Ramirez, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Amir Segev, Saïd Kourrich
Drug-induced enhanced dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain is a canonical mechanism that initiates addiction processes. However, indirect evidence suggests that cocaine also triggers non-canonical, DA-independent, mechanisms that contribute to behavioral responses to cocaine, including psychomotor sensitization and cocaine self-administration. Identifying these mechanisms and determining how they are initiated is fundamental to further our understanding of addiction processes. Using physiologically relevant in vitro tractable models, we found that cocaine-induced hypoactivity of nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) medium spiny neurons (MSNs), one hallmark of cocaine addiction, is independent of DA signaling...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, R Taylor, M H Ossipov
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Although pain is one of the most common afflictions, it is often inadequately managed because the available analgesic options are relatively limited due to insufficient efficacy, unacceptable adverse effects or the potential for misuse or abuse. However, recent publications suggest that an alternative approach-indirect enhancement of endogenous pain-relieving pathways-might be desirable. We review this approach, in particular the dual enkephalinase inhibitors (DENKIs)...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Jennifer C Felger, Andrew H Miller
Data suggest that cytokines released during the inflammatory response target subcortical structures including the basal ganglia as well as dopamine function to acutely induce behavioral changes that support fighting infection and wound healing. However, chronic inflammation and exposure to inflammatory cytokines appears to lead to persisting alterations in the basal ganglia and dopamine function reflected by anhedonia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing. Moreover, reduced neural responses to hedonic reward, decreased dopamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased presynaptic dopamine uptake and decreased turnover have been described...
August 2012: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Dong Li, Lu Wang, Su-Rong Yang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Juan Wang, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in behaviors that depend on heightened wakefulness, but its impact on arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NAc dopamine D1 receptor (D1 R)-expressing neurons are essential for behavioral arousal. Using in vivo fiber photometry in mice, we find arousal-dependent increases in population activity of NAc D1 R neurons. Optogenetic activation of NAc D1 R neurons induces immediate transitions from non-rapid eye movement sleep to wakefulness, and chemogenetic stimulation prolongs arousal, with decreased food intake...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
A J Greenshaw
beta-Phenylethylamine is an endogenous brain amine which has been characterised as an endogenous amphetamine. The rewarding properties of the structurally similar drug amphetamine in humans and other species indicate a possible role for endogenous beta-phenylethylamine in neural processes underlying reward or reinforcement. Evidence for reinforcing properties of beta-phenylethylamine in the drug self-administration and place preference paradigms is briefly reviewed. The possibility that endogenous beta-phenylethylamine may be involved in reinforcement processes is also considered in relation to studies of intracranial self-stimulation...
1984: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Tatyana D Sotnikova, Evgeny A Budygin, Sara R Jones, Linda A Dykstra, Marc G Caron, Raul R Gainetdinov
Beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) is an endogenous amine that is found in trace amounts in the brain. It is believed that the locomotor-stimulating action of beta-PEA, much like amphetamine, depends on its ability to increase extracellular dopamine (DA) concentrations owing to reversal of the direction of dopamine transporter (DAT)-mediated DA transport. beta-PEA can also bind directly to the recently identified G protein-coupled receptors, but the physiological significance of this interaction is unclear. To assess the mechanism by which beta-PEA mediates its effects, we compared the neurochemical and behavioral effects of this amine in wild type (WT), heterozygous and 'null' DAT mutant mice...
October 2004: Journal of Neurochemistry
Thomas C Südhof
Neuroscience is inherently interdisciplinary in its quest to explain the brain. Like all biological structures, the brain operates at multiple levels, from nano-scale molecules to meter-scale systems. Here, I argue that understanding the nano-scale organization of the brain is not only helpful for insight into its function, but is a requisite for such insight. I propose that one impediment to a better understanding of the brain is that most of its molecular processes are incompletely understood, and suggest a number of key questions that require our attention so that progress can be achieved in neuroscience beyond a description of the activity of neural circuits...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
D J Reis, S Regunathan
Recent evidence suggests that agmatine, which is an intermediate in polyamine biosynthesis, might be an important neurotransmitter in mammals. Agmatine is synthesized in the brain, stored in synaptic vesicles in regionally selective neurons, accumulated by uptake, released by depolarization, and inactivated by agmatinase. Agmatine binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors and imidazoline binding sites, and blocks NMDA receptor channels and other ligand-gated cationic channels. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits nitric oxide synthase, and induces the release of some peptide hormones...
May 2000: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Tayfun I Uzbay
Agmatine is a polyamine that is produced via decarboxylation of l-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase. It binds to various receptors and has been accepted as a novel neurotransmitter in brain. In experimental studies, agmatine exhibited anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like actions. Furthermore, it has some beneficial effects on cerebral ischemia models in animals. Agmatine interacts with the mechanisms of withdrawal syndromes for several addictive agents. It also modulates some processes involved in learning and memory...
January 2012: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Gregory M Miller, Christopher D Verrico, Amy Jassen, Martha Konar, Hong Yang, Helen Panas, Mary Bahn, Ryan Johnson, Bertha K Madras
Recently identified trace amine receptors are potential direct targets for drugs of abuse, including amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). We cloned full-length rhesus monkey trace amine receptor 1 (rhTA(1)) that was 96% homologous to human TA(1). The trace amines tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (PEA) and the monoamine transporter substrates (+/-)-amphetamine and (+/-)-MDMA stimulated cAMP accumulation in rhTA(1)-expressing cell lines, as measured by a cAMP response element-luciferase assay...
June 2005: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Tomislav Jukić, Bojan Rojc, Darja Boben-Bardutzky, Mateja Hafner, Alojz Ihan
We described the use of a food supplementation with D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan in the alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients starting a detoxification therapy. Since abstinence from ethanol causes a hypodopaminergic and a hypoopioidergic environment in the reword system circuits, manifesting with withdrawal symptoms, food supplements that contains D-phenylalanine a peptidase inhibitor (of opioide inactivation) and L-amino-acids (for dopamine synthesis) were used to replenish a lack in neurotransmitters and alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal...
December 2011: Collegium Antropologicum
Yao-Ying Ma, Brian R Lee, Xiusong Wang, Changyong Guo, Lei Liu, Ranji Cui, Yan Lan, Judith J Balcita-Pedicino, Marina E Wolf, Susan R Sesack, Yavin Shaham, Oliver M Schlüter, Yanhua H Huang, Yan Dong
Glutamatergic projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) contribute to cocaine relapse. Here we show that silent synapse-based remodeling of the two major mPFC-to-NAc projections differentially regulated the progressive increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking after withdrawal (incubation of cocaine craving). Specifically, cocaine self-administration in rats generated AMPA receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses within both infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic mPFC (PrL) to NAc projections, measured after 1 day of withdrawal...
September 17, 2014: Neuron
Shenfeng Qiu, Zhongming Lu, Pat Levitt
The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), implicated in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in functional and structural circuit integrity in humans, is a temporally and spatially regulated receptor enriched in dorsal pallial-derived structures during mouse forebrain development. Here we report that loss or gain of function of MET in vitro or in vivo leads to changes, opposite in nature, in dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and the timing of glutamatergic synapse maturation onto hippocampus CA1 neurons...
December 3, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
J Sarris, S Moylan, D A Camfield, M P Pase, D Mischoulon, M Berk, F N Jacka, I Schweitzer
Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area...
2012: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Chon-Haw Tsai, Hui-Chun Huang, Bey-Ling Liu, Chia-Ing Li, Ming-Kuei Lu, Xianxiu Chen, Mu-Chieh Tsai, Yu-Wan Yang, Hsien-Yuan Lane
AIM: We have previously found that sarcosine, a glycine transporter I inhibitor, can improve the psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the agent can also ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with dementia. METHODS: An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in patients who had PD with dementia (PD-D). Neuropsychiatric manifestations were measured before and at week 2 (V1), week 4 (V2) and week 8 (V3) after treatment...
September 2014: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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