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Medical Ethics

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1718 papers 500 to 1000 followers Trending issues in health policy, medical ethics and philosophy of medicine
By Michael Young Harvard Medical School
Aron S Buchman, Robert J Dawe, Lei Yu, Andrew Lim, Robert S Wilson, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that brain pathology is associated with total daily physical activity proximate to death in older adults. METHODS: We studied brain autopsies from 428 decedents of the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The quantity of all physical activity was measured continuously for up to 10 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Healthcare, Bend, OR). Multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex were used to examine the relation of brain indexes to total daily physical activity and other clinical covariates proximate to death...
May 22, 2018: Neurology
Sammi R Chekroud, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Amanda B Zheutlin, Martin Paulus, Harlan M Krumholz, John H Krystal, Adam M Chekroud
BACKGROUND: Exercise is known to be associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes, but its association with mental health remains unclear. We aimed to examine the association between exercise and mental health burden in a large sample, and to better understand the influence of exercise type, frequency, duration, and intensity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analysed data from 1 237 194 people aged 18 years or older in the USA from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System survey...
September 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Maria Claudia Vigliani, Jerome Honnorat, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Roberta Vitaliani, Bruno Giometto, Dimitri Psimaras, Federica Franchino, Carlotta Rossi, Francesc Graus
Chorea and other movement disorders are rarely described as paraneoplastic. The aim of this study was to describe 13 patients with paraneoplastic chorea and dystonia collected by the members of the paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) EuroNetwork and to review 29 cases from the literature. We analyzed neurological symptoms, severity of the neurological syndrome, delay in neurological diagnosis, associated cancer, oncological and neurological treatments received, and outcome. Eleven (1.2%) out of 913 patients with PNS were identified in the EuroNetwork register...
November 2011: Journal of Neurology
Michele M Straus, Udi E Ghitza, Betty Tai
The opioid overdose epidemic is an alarming and serious public health problem in the United States (US) that has been escalating for 11 years. The 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) demonstrated that 1 in 20 persons in the US aged 12 or older reported nonmedical use of prescription painkillers in the past year. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States - surpassing motor vehicle accidents. Great efforts have been initiated to curb the overdose crisis...
September 2, 2013: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Samuel R Chamberlain, Christine Lochner, Dan J Stein, Anna E Goudriaan, Ruth Janke van Holst, Joseph Zohar, Jon E Grant
The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'...
May 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Joseph F McGuire, Nicole McBride, John Piacentini, Carly Johnco, Adam B Lewin, Tanya K Murphy, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Premonitory urge ratings have advanced our understanding of urge phenomenology among individuals with tic disorders (TD). However, these ratings have been limited by their reliance on a single global dimension of urge severity. This study examined the psychometric properties of a novel scale called the Individualized Premonitory Urge for Tics Scale (I-PUTS) that assesses urge severity across multiple dimensions (number, frequency, and intensity). METHOD: Seventy-five youth with a TD and their parents participated...
December 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Tiffany Wesley, Diana Hamer, George Karam
INTRODUCTION: Narrative medicine develops professional and communication skills that align with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. However, little is known about a narrative medicine curriculum's impact on physicians in training during residency. Implementing a narrative medicine curriculum during residency can be challenging because of time constraints and limited opportunity for nonclinical education. METHODS: Six sessions were implemented throughout one academic year to expose first-year internal medicine residents (interns) to narrative medicine...
April 18, 2018: Permanente Journal
David O Carpenter, Cindy Sage
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases...
April 2008: Reviews on Environmental Health
Emily Sohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Nature
Yaron M Sigal, Ruobo Zhou, Xiaowei Zhuang
Super-resolution microscopy has overcome a long-held resolution barrier-the diffraction limit-in light microscopy and enabled visualization of previously invisible molecular details in biological systems. Since their conception, super-resolution imaging methods have continually evolved and can now be used to image cellular structures in three dimensions, multiple colors, and living systems with nanometer-scale resolution. These methods have been applied to answer questions involving the organization, interaction, stoichiometry, and dynamics of individual molecular building blocks and their integration into functional machineries in cells and tissues...
August 31, 2018: Science
Patrick F Sullivan, Arpana Agrawal, Cynthia M Bulik, Ole A Andreassen, Anders D Børglum, Gerome Breen, Sven Cichon, Howard J Edenberg, Stephen V Faraone, Joel Gelernter, Carol A Mathews, Caroline M Nievergelt, Jordan W Smoller, Michael C O'Donovan
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Jun Zhan, Jingyuan Ren, Pei Sun, Jin Fan, Chang Liu, Jing Luo
In contrast to cognitive emotion regulation theories that emphasize top-down control of prefrontal-mediated regulation of emotion, in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, different emotions are considered to have mutual promotion and counteraction relationships. Our previous studies have provided behavioral evidence supporting the hypotheses that "fear promotes anger" and "sadness counteracts anger"; this study further investigated the corresponding neural correlates. A basic hypothesis we made is the "internal versus external orientation" assumption proposing that fear could promote anger as its external orientation associated with motivated action, whereas sadness could counteract anger as its internal or homeostatic orientation to somatic or visceral experience...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Jeremy D Schmahmann
What the cerebellum does to sensorimotor and vestibular control, it also does to cognition, emotion, and autonomic function. This hypothesis is based on the theories of dysmetria of thought and the universal cerebellar transform, which hold that the cerebellum maintains behavior around a homeostatic baseline, automatically, without conscious awareness, informed by implicit learning, and performed according to context. Functional topography within the cerebellum facilitates the modulation of distributed networks subserving multiple different functions...
January 1, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Joseph Soltis
Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range...
March 2010: Zoo Biology
Ilias Kyriopoulos, Kostas Athanasakis, John Kyriopoulos
BACKGROUND: From a theoretical perspective, several studies indicate that happiness and health are-in some extent-interrelated. Despite the mechanisms explaining the relationship between happiness and health, there is still no consensus regarding this link. Using recently collected primary data, this study aims to examine the relationship between happiness and health, and identify potential heterogeneity in the association depending on socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: This study draws on data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, conducted by the Greek National School of Public Health in 2015...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
(no author information available yet)
Bioethics comes in for furious criticism in Stephen Pinker's new book, Enlightenment Now. Pinker argues that scientists are making human lives better and better, and that lives would get still better even faster if bioethicists did not use ideas like informed consent, dignity, sacredness, and social justice to hobble the scientists. Daniel Callahan, a cofounder of The Hastings Center and arguably of bioethics, is perhaps the best living embodiment of a bioethicist who has written about medical progress, and the March-April 2018 issue of the Hastings Center Report turns to him for a review of Pinker's book...
March 2018: Hastings Center Report
Zeno Van Duppen, Rob Sips
BACKGROUND: Experiences of psychosis are often assumed to be strange, bizarre, or incomprehensible. The aim of this article is to offer a new step towards a better understanding of how the psychotic process affects a prereflective background. METHODS: We use concepts from the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein to clarify the first-person perspective on psychosis of one of the authors. RESULTS: We describe the early psychotic process as breaking down the "nest of propositions," shaking the scaffolds of our language games...
2018: Psychopathology
Amit Banerjee, Daniel Bernoulli, Hongti Zhang, Muk-Fung Yuen, Jiabin Liu, Jichen Dong, Feng Ding, Jian Lu, Ming Dao, Wenjun Zhang, Yang Lu, Subra Suresh
Diamonds have substantial hardness and durability, but attempting to deform diamonds usually results in brittle fracture. We demonstrate ultralarge, fully reversible elastic deformation of nanoscale (~300 nanometers) single-crystalline and polycrystalline diamond needles. For single-crystalline diamond, the maximum tensile strains (up to 9%) approached the theoretical elastic limit, and the corresponding maximum tensile stress reached ~89 to 98 gigapascals. After combining systematic computational simulations and characterization of pre- and postdeformation structural features, we ascribe the concurrent high strength and large elastic strain to the paucity of defects in the small-volume diamond nanoneedles and to the relatively smooth surfaces compared with those of microscale and larger specimens...
April 20, 2018: Science
Salman Akhtar
This paper offers a nuanced discourse on the otherwise ignored topic of humility. It brings together scattered comments within psychoanalysis, secular lay-literature, sociocultural studies, and religious thought on humility. The paper also describes pathological variants of humility (excessive, deficient, false, and compartmentalized) and delineates five areas of clinical practice where humility plays an important role: (i) humility in selecting patients to treat, (ii) humility in daily conduct with patients, (iii) humility in the attitude of listening to clinical material, (iv) humility in the manner of intervening, and (v) humility in deciding upon the longevity of our professional careers...
March 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Jane S Moon, Catherine M Kuza, Manisha S Desai
William James greatly influenced the fields of psychology, philosophy, and religion during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This was the era of Modernism, a time when many writers rejected the certainty of Enlightenment ideals. Positivism, which rose to prominence in the early 19th century, had emphasized physical phenomena, empirical evidence, and the scientific method. Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859), with its theory of natural selection, provided an explanation for the evolution of species apart from a divine Creator...
January 2018: Journal of Anesthesia History
2018-04-09 13:19:21
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