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Vascular Calcification

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183 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Isabel Acosta-Ochoa Nephrology senior staff. Valladolid. Spain
Yingjie Liu, Yiru Wu, Zongli Diao, Weikang Guo, Wenhu Liu
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease, so there is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets to control the progression of cardiovascular disease. Apoptosis of aortic smooth muscle cells can promote cardiovascular disease, but the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and sirtuin 1 in the pathophysiology of apoptosis is still unclear. METHODS: Cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) were stimulated with 10-6 , 10-8 , or 10-10  mol/L PTH for different days, apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and sirtuin 1 and Bcl-2 protein levels in cell extracts were analyzed by western blotting...
November 2019: Renal Failure
Lara W Zeper, Jeroen H F de Baaij
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vascular calcification is a major contributor to increased cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, calciprotein particles (CPP) were identified to drive the calcification process. CPP may explain the effects of high phosphate on vascular calcification. Magnesium is a promising novel therapeutic approach to halt vascular calcification, because it inhibits CPP maturation and is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality in CKD. We aim to examine the current evidence for the role of CPP in the calcification process and to explain how magnesium prevents calcification...
April 30, 2019: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Yusuke Sakaguchi, Takayuki Hamano, Yoshitsugu Obi, Chikako Monden, Tatsufumi Oka, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Isao Matsui, Nobuhiro Hashimoto, Ayumi Matsumoto, Karin Shimada, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Atsushi Takahashi, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Toshiki Moriyama, Ryohei Yamamoto, Masaru Horio, Koichi Yamamoto, Ken Sugimoto, Hiromi Rakugi, Yoshitaka Isaka
BACKGROUND: Developing strategies for managing coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with CKD is an important clinical challenge. Experimental studies have demonstrated that magnesium inhibits vascular calcification, whereas the uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate aggravates it. METHODS: To assess the efficacy of magnesium oxide (MgO) and/or the oral carbon adsorbent AST-120 for slowing CAC progression in CKD, we conducted a 2-year, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, enrolling patients with stage 3-4 CKD with risk factors for CAC (diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, high LDL cholesterol, or smoking)...
April 29, 2019: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Yaqin Wang, Yuanyi Miao, Kunjing Gong, Xuyang Cheng, Yuqing Chen, Ming-Hui Zhao
The complement system plays an important role in cardiovascular disease in patients on hemodialysis. Vascular calcification is also one of the major causes of cardiovascular disease. We want to investigate the relationship between complement activation and vascular calcification in dialyzed patients. One hundred eight hemodialysis patients and 65 heathy controls were enrolled prospectively. Plasma C3a, C5a, mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and membrane attack complex (MAC or C5b-9) levels were detected using ELISA...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Joanna Kamińska, Marek Stopiński, Krzysztof Mucha, Anna Jędrzejczak, Marek Gołębiowski, Monika A Niewczas, Leszek Pączek, Bartosz Foroncewicz
INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of death mainly due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Early risk identification may allow interventions and prevention of fatal events. OBJECTIVES: The study aim was to assess the usefulness of selected CVD biomarkers as predictors of 5-year mortality in patients with different CKD stages. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Study included 57 CKD patients: 38 in stage 5 (ESRD), 19 in stage 3 and 4 (CKD3-4), and 19 healthy controls...
April 13, 2019: Cytokine
Vaia D Raikou, Despina Kyriaki
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is substantially prevalent among patients in the end stage of renal disease (ESRD). We considered factors related to peripheral arterial disease in patients undergoing hemodialysis including the important role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) serum concentrations. We studied 150 patients in on-line-predilution hemodiafiltration. Dialysis sufficiency was defined by Kt/V for urea. PAD was defined using clinical criteria, ankle-brachial index and Doppler ultrasound in the lower limbs...
April 15, 2019: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Jakob Voelkl, Daniel Cejka, Ioana Alesutan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) facilitates a unique environment to strongly accelerate vascular calcification - the pathological deposition of calcium-phosphate in the vasculature. These calcifications are associated with the excessive cardiovascular mortality of CKD patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular calcification is a multifaceted active process, mediated, at least partly, by vascular smooth muscle cells. These cells are able to transdifferentiate into cells with osteo/chondrogenic properties, which exert multiple effects to facilitate vascular tissue mineralization...
April 9, 2019: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Mario Cozzolino, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi, Michela Mangano, Stefano Carugo, Irene Capelli, Giuseppe Cianciolo
Vascular calcification (VC) is common in dialysis and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, even in the early stage of the disease. For this reason, it can be considered a CKD hallmark. VC contributes to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increased mortality among CKD patients, although it has not been proven. There are more than one type of VC and every form represents a marker of systemic vascular disease and is associated with a higher prevalence of CVD in CKD patients, as shown by several clinical studies...
April 9, 2019: Toxins
Britt Opdebeeck, Stuart Maudsley, Abdelkrim Azmi, Annelies De Maré, Wout De Leger, Bjorn Meijers, Anja Verhulst, Pieter Evenepoel, Patrick C D'Haese, Ellen Neven
BACKGROUND: Protein-bound uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) have been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. However, direct evidence for a role of these toxins in CKD-related vascular calcification has not been reported. METHODS: To study early and late vascular alterations by toxin exposure, we exposed CKD rats to vehicle, IS (150 mg/kg per day), or PCS (150 mg/kg per day) for either 4 days (short-term exposure) or 7 weeks (long-term exposure)...
May 2019: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Joshua D Bundy, Xuan Cai, Julia J Scialla, Mirela A Dobre, Jing Chen, Chi-Yuan Hsu, Mary B Leonard, Alan S Go, Panduranga S Rao, James P Lash, Raymond R Townsend, Harold I Feldman, Ian H de Boer, Geoffrey A Block, Myles Wolf, Edward R Smith, Andreas Pasch, Tamara Isakova
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is prevalent among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increases risks for cardiovascular disease events and mortality. We hypothesized that a novel serum measure of calcification propensity is associated with CAC among patients with CKD stages 2 to 4. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study with baseline (n=1,274) and follow-up (n=780) CAC measurements...
March 29, 2019: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Ping Wang, Zhengli Quan, Dingshi Luo, Wangshan Chen, Dan Peng
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in patients with end stage renal disease and is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical observations have demonstrated that hyperphosphatemia and hyperglycemia can accelerate VC. Spironolactone (SPL) has been proven to improve cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials and its protective effect on VC has been reported recently; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood and require further investigation...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Kai-Uwe Eckardt, Kerstin Amann, Makoto Kuro-O, Andreas Pasch, Burkert Pieske, Ioana Alesutan
Medial vascular calcification has emerged as a putative key factor contributing to the excessive cardiovascular mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hyperphosphatemia is considered a decisive determinant of vascular calcification in CKD. A critical role in initiation and progression of vascular calcification during elevated phosphate conditions is attributed to vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which are able to change their phenotype into osteo-/chondroblasts-like cells. These transdifferentiated VSMCs actively promote calcification in the medial layer of the arteries by producing a local pro-calcifying environment as well as nidus sites for precipitation of calcium and phosphate and growth of calcium phosphate crystals...
March 18, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Marko Baralić, Voin Brković, Vesna Stojanov, Sanja Stanković, Nataša Lalić, Petar Đurić, Ljubica Đukanović, Milorad Kašiković, Milan Petrović, Marko Petrović, Milan Stošović, Višnja Ležaić
Background: Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in dialysis (HD) patients, and its mechanism is multifactorial. Most likely that systemic or local inhibitory factor is overwhelmed by promoters of VC in these patients. VC increased arterial stiffness, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of VC and myocardial remodeling and to analyze their relationship with VC promoters (fibroblast growth factor 23-FGF23, Klotho, intact parathormon-iPTH, vitamin D) in 56 prevalent HD patients (median values: age 54 yrs, HD vintage 82 months)...
April 2019: Journal of Medical Biochemistry
Pilar Sanchis, Chin Yee Ho, Yiwen Liu, Leilani E Beltran, Sadia Ahmad, Anne P Jacob, Malgorzata Furmanik, Joanne Laycock, David A Long, Rukshana Shroff, Catherine M Shanahan
Children on dialysis have a cardiovascular mortality risk equivalent to older adults in the general population, and rapidly develop medial vascular calcification, an age-associated pathology. We hypothesized that premature vascular ageing contributes to calcification in children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vessels from children with Stage 5 CKD with and without dialysis had evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage. The senescence markers p16 and p21 were also increased in vessels from children on dialysis...
February 28, 2019: Kidney International
Grzegorz B Wasilewski, Marc G Vervloet, Leon J Schurgers
Calcium supplements are broadly prescribed to treat osteoporosis either as monotherapy or together with vitamin D to enhance calcium absorption. It is still unclear whether calcium supplementation significantly contributes to the reduction of bone fragility and fracture risk. Data suggest that supplementing post-menopausal women with high doses of calcium has a detrimental impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are prone to vascular calcification in part due to impaired phosphate excretion...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Jing Chen, Yulu Gu, Han Zhang, Yichun Ning, Nana Song, Jiachang Hu, Jieru Cai, Yiqin Shi, Xiaoqiang Ding, Xiaoyan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification (VC) is a very common phenomenon in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been reported that some histone methylation play a role in VC as an epigenetic regulator. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin that has been proven as one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular disease in CKD. SET domain containing lysine methyltransferase 7/9 (SET7/9) is one of the important histone methyltransferases. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effect of IS on the expression of SET7/9 and the role of SET7/9 in IS-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
February 15, 2019: Nephron
M Oštrić, M Kukuljan, D Markić, A Gršković, A Ivančić, D Bobinac, J Španjol, J Maroević, I Šoša, T Ćelić
Since vascular calcification is considered a process regulated similar to that of bone tissue mineralization, we investigated the participation of bone formation proteins. We analyzed the correlation of serum circulating bone markers, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor ĸB ligand (RANKL) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, to coronary artery calcification score. We also considered the effect of inorganic phosphate on pro- and anti-calcifying tissue factors. We confirmed that circulating OPG is an independent calcium score predictor with its high serum concentration favoring high coronary artery calcification...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi, Carlo Alfieri, Piergiorgio Messa, Mario Cozzolino
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Uremic patients experience premature vascular ageing that causes cardiovascular morbidity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between uremic serum calcific potential induced by high phosphate (Pi) and vascular calcification score (VCS). METHODS: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured with 3.5 mM Na3PO4 (Pi) with 10% uremic serum and calcium deposition, markers of osteoblastic transformation, and apoptosis were evaluated...
February 6, 2019: Blood Purification
Nadine Kaesler, Claudia Goettsch, Daniel Weis, Leon Schurgers, Burkhard Hellmann, Jürgen Floege, Rafael Kramann
Background: Optimal phosphate control is an unmet need in chronic kidney disease (CKD). High serum phosphate increases calcification burden and is associated with mortality and cardiovascular disease in CKD. Nicotinamide (NA) alone or in combination with calcium-free phosphate binders might be a strategy to reduce phosphate levels and calcification and thus impact cardiovascular disease in CKD. Methods: We studied the effect of NA alone and in combination with magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) as a potential novel treatment strategy...
February 1, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Farid Samaan, Aluízio B Carvalho, Roberta Pillar, Lillian A Rocha, José L Cassiolato, Lilian Cuppari, Maria Eugênia F Canziani
OBJECTIVE: The role of vitamin D supplementation on vascular calcification (VC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term cholecalciferol supplementation on VC in nondialysis patients with CKD stages 3-4 with hypovitaminosis D. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighty patients aged 18-85 years with creatinine clearance between 15 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and serum 25(OH)D level < 30 ng/mL were enrolled in a 18-month prospective study...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Renal Nutrition
2019-01-30 07:20:29
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