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Stem cell pattern formation

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6 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Youfang Cao Computational systems biology. Multiscale spatio-temporal modeling of cellular systems.
Renze Heidstra, Sabrina Sabatini
The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into new tissues. Plant stem cell niches are located within the meristems, which are organized structures that are responsible for most post-embryonic development. The continuous organ production that is characteristic of plant growth requires a robust regulatory network to keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating progeny...
May 2014: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Malte Schmick, Philippe I H Bastiaens
Cellular membranes are constantly reshaped by vesicular fission and fusion as well as by interactions with the dynamic cytoskeleton. Signaling activity at membranes depends on their geometric parameters, such as surface area and curvature; these affect local concentration and thereby regulate the potency of molecular reactions. A membrane's shape is thus inextricably tied to information processing. Here, we review how a trinity of signaling, cytoskeletal dynamics, and membrane shape interact within a closed-loop causality that gives rise to an energy-consuming, self-organized system that changes shape to sense the extracellular environment...
March 13, 2014: Cell
William R Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2014: Biophysical Journal
Jeanette A Johansson, Denis J Headon
The skin displays marked anatomical variation in thickness, colour and in the appendages that it carries. These regional distinctions arise in the embryo, likely founded on a combinatorial positional code of transcription factor expression. Throughout adult life, the skin's distinct anatomy is maintained through both cell autonomous epigenetic processes and by mesenchymal-epithelial induction. Despite the readily apparent anatomical differences in skin characteristics across the body, several fundamental questions regarding how such regional differences first arise and then persist are unresolved...
January 2014: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Guanyi Huang, Hexin Yan, Shoudong Ye, Chang Tong, Qi-Long Ying
STAT3 can be transcriptionally activated by phosphorylation of its tyrosine 705 or serine 727 residue. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling maintains pluripotency by inducing JAK-mediated phosphorylation of STAT3 Y705 (pY705). However, the function of phosphorylated S727 (pS727) in mESCs remains unclear. In this study, we examined the roles of STAT3 pY705 and pS727 in regulating mESC identities, using a small molecule-based system to post-translationally modulate the quantity of transgenic STAT3 in STAT3(-/-) mESCs...
May 2014: Stem Cells
Lucy Erin O'Brien, David Bilder
Adult animals rely on populations of stem cells to ensure organ function throughout their lifetime. Stem cells are governed by signals from stem cell niches, and much is known about how single niches promote stemness and direct stem cell behavior. However, most organs contain a multitude of stem cell-niche units, which are often distributed across the entire expanse of the tissue. Beyond the biology of individual stem cell-niche interactions, the next challenge is to uncover the tissue-level processes that orchestrate spatial control of stem-based renewal, repair, and remodeling throughout a whole organ...
2013: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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