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Syndrome X

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4 papers 25 to 100 followers
By Brooke Manor Endocrinology
Marisa Coelho, Teresa Oliveira, Ruben Fernandes
Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example)...
April 20, 2013: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Juha Koskinen, Costan G Magnussen, Matthew A Sabin, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Tomi Laitinen, Leena Taittonen, Eero Jokinen, Terho Lehtimäki, Jorma S A Viikari, Olli T Raitakari, Markus Juonala
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess cardiovascular risk and metabolic complications in adulthood in subjects with or without overweight and metabolic disturbances (i.e., elevated blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and high LDL cholesterol) and their combinations as youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, we examined the utility of four age- and sex-specific youth phenotypes (group I: normal weight, no metabolic disturbances; group II: normal weight, one or more metabolic disturbances; group III: overweight/obese, no metabolic disturbances; group IV: overweight/obese, one or more metabolic disturbances) in predicting adult high carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
July 2014: Diabetes Care
Samantha Hocking, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Kerry-Lee Milner, Jerry R Greenfield, Donald J Chisholm
Human adiposity has long been associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk, and abdominal adiposity is considered particularly adverse. Intra-abdominal fat is associated with insulin resistance, possibly mediated by greater lipolytic activity, lower adiponectin levels, resistance to leptin, and increased inflammatory cytokines, although the latter contribution is less clear. Liver lipid is also closely associated with, and likely to be an important contributor to, insulin resistance, but it may also be in part the consequence of the lipogenic pathway of insulin action being up-regulated by hyperinsulinemia and unimpaired signaling...
August 2013: Endocrine Reviews
Katherine M Flegal, Brian K Kit, Heather Orpana, Barry I Graubard
IMPORTANCE: Estimates of the relative mortality risks associated with normal weight, overweight, and obesity may help to inform decision making in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of reported hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality for overweight and obesity relative to normal weight in the general population. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched through September 30, 2012, without language restrictions...
January 2, 2013: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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