Brian D Southern, Rachel G Scheraga, Ruchi Yadav
As long-term smokers undergo computed tomography (CT) to screen for lung cancer, cases of interstitial lung disease are being discovered incidentally. This article explains how to distinguish among the most common forms of interstitial lung disease in this situation and the role of primary care physicians in managing them.
January 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Susanna Cappelli, Silvia Bellando Randone, Gianna Camiciottoli, Amato De Paulis, Serena Guiducci, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and despite recent advances in the treatment is, at present, the major cause of death. Today, an early diagnosis of ILD is possible, and is mandatory to improve the prognosis of the disease. Pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography remain the mainstay for the diagnosis of SSc-ILD, but there is a growing interest in lung ultrasound. Recently, the correlation between severity of fibrosis and some peripheral blood biomarkers has been described...
September 2015: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Maria A Kokosi, Andrew G Nicholson, David M Hansell, Athol U Wells
In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium...
May 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Elizabeth A Belloli, Fernando J Martinez, Kevin R Flaherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Vincent Cottin
This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment...
March 1, 2013: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
S Feuillet, A Tazi
Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) encompasses a spectrum of pulmonary disorders characterized by involvement of the lung interstitium and distal airways (bronchioles and alveoli). The onset of respiratory symptoms is acute, most often within two weeks. Most AIP take place de novo, but sometimes represent an acute exacerbation of chronic lung disease. The clinical presentation of AIP comprises rapidly progressive dyspnoea, associated sometimes with cough, fever, myalgia and asthenia. Chest radiography shows diffuse pulmonary opacities...
June 2011: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Sanjay Mukhopadhyay, Joseph G Parambil
Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a term used for an idiopathic form of acute lung injury characterized clinically by acute respiratory failure with bilateral lung infiltrates and histologically by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), a combination of findings previously known as the Hamman-Rich syndrome. This review aims to clarify the diagnostic criteria of AIP, its relationship with DAD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), key etiologies that need to be excluded before making the diagnosis, and the salient clinical features...
October 2012: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Vincent Cottin, Jean-François Cordier
Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a pathological pattern defined by the characteristic presence of buds of granulation tissue within the lumen of distal pulmonary airspaces consisting of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts intermixed with loose connective matrix. This pattern is the hallmark of a clinical pathological entity, namely cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) when no cause or etiologic context is found. The process of intraalveolar organization results from a sequence of alveolar injury, alveolar deposition of fibrin, and colonization of fibrin with proliferating fibroblasts...
October 2012: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Xinlun Tian, Eunhee S Yi, Jay H Ryu
Nonneoplastic pulmonary lymphoid disorders consist of a complex spectrum of diseases for pathologists and pulmonologists alike. Advances in our understanding of these disorders in recent years have led to revisions in the classification scheme. This review summarizes the clinicoradiological and pathological features of several benign pulmonary lymphoid disorders as well as the current knowledge regarding their pathogenesis. The disorders discussed include lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, follicular bronchiolitis, nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, inflammatory pseudotumor, Castleman disease, immunoglobulin G4-related disease in the lung, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease...
October 2012: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Keith C Meyer, Ganesh Raghu, Robert P Baughman, Kevin K Brown, Ulrich Costabel, Roland M du Bois, Marjolein Drent, Patricia L Haslam, Dong Soon Kim, Sonoko Nagai, Paola Rottoli, Cesare Saltini, Moisés Selman, Charlie Strange, Brent Wood
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cell analysis for the diagnosis and management of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been a subject of debate and controversy. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) sponsored a committee of international experts to examine all relevant literature on BAL in ILD and provide recommendations concerning the use of BAL in the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected ILD. PURPOSE: To provide recommendations for (1) the performance and processing of BAL and (2) the interpretation of BAL nucleated immune cell patterns and other BAL characteristics in patients with suspected ILD...
May 1, 2012: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Emma C Ferguson, Eugene A Berkowitz
OBJECTIVE: The interstitial pneumonias are a group of heterogeneous nonneoplastic lung diseases that may be idiopathic or associated with an underlying abnormality. Although they share some features in common, they also exhibit diverse pulmonary manifestations. Imaging plays an essential role in characterizing this group of disorders and can often suggest the diagnosis, though the final interpretation requires a coordinated effort involving the radiologist, pathologist, and clinician...
October 2012: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Aryeh Fischer, Roland du Bois
Some of the most pressing challenges associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are how best to define, diagnose, and treat connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTD-ILD)--disorders with potentially substantial morbidity and mortality. In this focused review, we address aspects of prognosis for CTD-ILD and what indices might predict outcome, together with lessons that can be learnt from clinical trials of systemic sclerosis-associated ILD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and how these lessons might be applied to future studies of CTD-ILD...
August 18, 2012: Lancet
Katerina M Antoniou, George A Margaritopoulos, Sara Tomassetti, Francesco Bonella, Ulrich Costabel, Venerino Poletti
Interstitial lung diseases are a group of diffuse parenchymal lung disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Knowledge achieved in recent years has resulted in the publication of the new classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, according to which there are three groups: major, rare and unclassified. The novelty of the new classification comes from the fact that difficult to classify entities can be treated according to the disease behaviour classification. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most lethal amongst the interstitial lung diseases and presents high heterogeneity in clinical behaviour...
March 1, 2014: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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