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Reward dysfunction in AD/HD

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303 papers 500 to 1000 followers Several notable papers detailing recent and historical evidence for amotivational symptoms in AD/HD
Jochen Hammes, Hendrik Theis, Kathrin Giehl, Merle C Hoenig, Andrea Greuel, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann, Gereon R Fink, Alexander Drzezga, Carsten Eggers, Thilo van Eimeren
Impulsive-compulsive behaviours like pathological gambling or hypersexuality are a frequent side effect of dopamine replacement therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple imaging studies suggest a significant reduction of presynaptic dopamine transporters in the nucleus accumbens to be a predisposing factor, reflecting either a reduction of mesolimbic projections or, alternatively, a lower presynaptic dopamine transporter expression per se. Here, we aimed to test the hypothesis of fewer mesolimbic projections as a risk factor by using dopamine synthesis capacity as a proxy of dopaminergic terminal density...
February 8, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Masanori Ogata, Hisanao Akita, Hitoshi Ishibashi
The dopaminergic neural system plays a crucial role in motor regulation as well as regulation of anxiety-related behaviors. Although rats with neonatal dopamine depletion exhibit motor hyperactivity and have been utilized as animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, characterization of their behavior under anxiogenic conditions is lacking. In the present study, we investigated behavioral responses to anxiogenic stimuli in young adult rats with neonatal dopamine depletion using the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and light/dark (L/B) box tests...
February 6, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Christopher T Smith, M Danica San Juan, Linh C Dang, Daniel T Katz, Scott F Perkins, Leah L Burgess, Ronald L Cowan, H Charles Manning, Michael L Nickels, Daniel O Claassen, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, David H Zald
Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic feature of a range of externalizing psychiatric disorders. Preclinical work links reduced ventral striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking. However, there is a lack of human data investigating the relationship between DAT availability, particularly in subregions of the striatum, and the personality traits of impulsivity and novelty seeking. Here we collected PET measures of DAT availability (BPND ) using the tracer 18 F-FE-PE2I in 47 healthy adult subjects and examined relations between BPND in striatum, including its subregions: caudate, putamen, and ventral striatum (VS), and trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: BIS-11) and novelty seeking (Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: TPQ-NS), controlling for age and sex...
December 7, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Torben Ott, Andreas Nieder
Cognitive control, the ability to orchestrate behavior in accord with our goals, depends on the prefrontal cortex. These cognitive functions are heavily influenced by the neuromodulator dopamine. We review here recent insights exploring the influence of dopamine on neuronal response properties in prefrontal cortex (PFC) during ongoing behaviors in primates. This review suggests three major computational roles of dopamine in cognitive control: (i) gating sensory input, (ii) maintaining and manipulating working memory contents, and (iii) relaying motor commands...
January 31, 2019: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Douglas T Leffa, Samira G Ferreira, Nuno J Machado, Carolina M Souza, Fernanda da Rosa, Cristiane de Carvalho, Grasielle C Kincheski, Reinaldo N Takahashi, Lisiane O Porciúncula, Diogo O Souza, Rodrigo A Cunha, Pablo Pandolfo
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by impaired levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Adenosine and endocannabinoid systems tightly interact in the modulation of dopamine signaling, involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. In this study, we evaluated the modulating effects of the cannabinoid and adenosine systems in a tolerance to delay of reward task using the most widely used animal model of ADHD. Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated chronically or acutely with caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, or acutely with a cannabinoid agonist (WIN55212-2, WIN) or antagonist (AM251)...
January 22, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Pavel Golubchik, Lilach Shalev, Dina Tsamir, Iris Manor, Abraham Weizman
The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity levels, as assessed by a continuous performance test (CPT), and the correlations between baseline CPT performance and response to methylphenidate (MPH), as assessed by the conjunctive CPT (CCPT), in children with only Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with no oppositional defiant disorder (ADHD/noODD) or with comorbid ODD (ADHD/ODD). Fifty-three children and adolescents were included in the study (ADHD/noODD group, n=25, 12 women/13 men and ADHD/ODD group, n=28, eight females/20 males)...
January 11, 2019: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Stephanie A Ihezie, Ming M Thomas, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant used for the treatment of ADHD and works by increasing the bioavailability of dopamine (DA) in the brain. As a major source of DA, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) served as the principal target in this study as we aimed to understand its role in modulating the acute and chronic MPD effect. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, sham, electrical lesion, and 6-OHDA lesion groups. Given the VTA's implication in the locomotive circuit, three locomotor indices-horizontal activity, number of stereotypy, and total distance-were used to measure the animals' behavioral response to the drug...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Neural Transmission
Courtney A Marshall, Zachary D Brodnik, Ole V Mortensen, Maarten E A Reith, Jed S Shumsky, Barry D Waterhouse, Rodrigo A España, Sandhya Kortagere
Catecholamine transmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) regulate prefrontal cortical (PFC) circuit activity and PFC-mediated executive functions. Accordingly, pharmacological agents that influence catecholamine neurotransmission exert prominent effects on cognition. Many such agents are used clinically to treat attention disorders. For example, methylphenidate blocks DA and NE reuptake and is the leading choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Recently, we have designed SK609 - a selective small molecule agonist of the DA D3 receptor (D3R)...
January 8, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Russell A Barkley, Karen Müller Smith, Mariellen Fischer
ADHD is associated with an elevated risk of mortality and reduced estimated life expectancy (ELE) by adulthood. Reduced life expectancy is substantially related to the trait of behavioral disinhibition; a correlate of both ADHD and of several dopamine genes related to dopamine signaling and metabolism. We therefore hypothesized that several ADHD risk genes related to dopamine might also be predictive of reduced ELE. Using a longitudinal study of 131 hyperactive children and 71 control cases followed to young adulthood, we examined whether several polymorphisms involving DRD4, DAT1, and DBH were related to ELE...
January 13, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Sineadh M Conway, Daniel Puttick, Shayla Russell, David Potter, Mitchell F Roitman, Elena H Chartoff
The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN) activates kappa opioid receptors (KORs) in the brain to produce depressive-like states and decrease motivation. KOR-mediated suppression of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is considered one underlying mechanism. We previously showed that, regardless of estrous cycle stage, female rats are less sensitive than males to KOR agonist-mediated decreases in motivation to respond for brain stimulation reward, measured with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). However, the explicit roles of KORs, circulating gonadal hormones, and their interaction with dopamine signaling in motivated behavior are not known...
March 1, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Joshua L Doidge, David B Flora, Maggie E Toplak
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether males and females with ADHD differ in their preferences for delayed rewards, since there is some evidence that suggests a sex difference with typically developing (TD) samples. METHOD: We used meta-analyses to examine sex differences on delay of gratification and temporal discounting tasks in both TD and ADHD samples. We identified 28 papers with 52 effect sizes for children and adults, and calculated the average effect size for sex comparisons within TD and ADHD samples...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Adele Stewart, Gwynne L Davis, Paul J Gresch, Rania M Katamish, Rodeania Peart, Maximilian J Rabil, Raajaram Gowrishankar, F Ivy Carroll, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Dopamine (DA) signaling dysfunction is believed to contribute to multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The rare DA transporter (DAT) coding substitution Ala559Val found in subjects with ADHD, bipolar disorder and autism, promotes anomalous DA efflux in vitro and, in DAT Val559 mice, leads to increased reactivity to imminent handling, waiting impulsivity, and enhanced motivation for reward. Here, we report that, in contrast to amphetamine and methylphenidate, which induce significant locomotor activation, cocaine administration to these mice elicits no locomotor effects, despite retention of conditioned place preference (CPP)...
December 21, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bradley S Gibson, M Karl Healey, Dawn M Gondoli
Previous attempts to understand the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be limited by the tendency to focus exclusively on "externally directed cognition" (EDC) while ignoring "internally directed cognition" (IDC; Dixon, Fox, & Christoff, 2014. There is clear evidence that ADHD reflects deficiencies in EDC because of weaknesses in modulatory, motivational, and cognitive control constructs, but little is currently known about the integrity of IDC in ADHD...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Keri S Rosch, Stewart H Mostofsky, Mary Beth Nebel
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with atypical fronto-subcortical neural circuitry and heightened delay discounting, or a stronger preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed rewards. Recent evidence of ADHD-related sex differences in brain structure and function suggests anomalies in fronto-subcortical circuitry may differ among girls and boys with ADHD. The current study examined whether the functional connectivity (FC) within fronto-subcortical neural circuitry differs among girls and boys with ADHD compared to same-sex typically developing (TD) controls and relates to delay discounting...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Ciarán M Fitzpatrick, Annika H Runegaard, Søren H Christiansen, Nikolaj W Hansen, Søren H Jørgensen, Julia C McGirr, Amaia de Diego Ajenjo, Andreas T Sørensen, Jean-François Perrier, Anders Petersen, Ulrik Gether, David P D Woldbye, Jesper T Andreasen
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, aberrant impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although the underlying pathophysiology of ADHD remains unclear, dopamine and norepinephrine signaling originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to be critically involved. In this study, we employ Designer Receptor Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) together with the mouse 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) to investigate the necessary roles of these catecholamines in ADHD-related behaviors, including attention, impulsivity, and motivation...
December 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Hitomi Sasamori, Yu Ohmura, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement, substance abuse, and suicide. However, only a few drugs are clinically available for the treatment of deficient impulse control. We recently proposed a strategy for identifying potential drugs to treat such disorders by investigating clinically available drugs that increase extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex and stimulate dopamine D1 -like receptors without increasing extracellular dopamine levels in the ventral striatum...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Katie L Bessette, Michael C Stevens
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) abnormalities in relationships between brain white matter structure and individual differences in several types of impulsive behavior. METHODS: Adolescents, n = 67 with ADHD combined subtype and n = 68 without ADHD, were given neuropsychological tests and underwent diffusion tensor imaging scans. Principal component analysis reduced test scores into factors representing different types of impulsive behavior...
September 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Nadja Freund, Chloe J Jordan, Jodi L Lukkes, Kevin J Norman, Susan L Andersen
RATIONALE: Both methylphenidate (MPH), a catecholamine reuptake blocker, and guanfacine, an alpha2A agonist, are used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Childhood impulsivity, including delay discounting, is associated with increased substance use during adolescence. These effects can be mitigated by juvenile exposure to MPH, but less is known about the long-term effects of developmental exposure to guanfacine in males and females. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine sex differences and dose-dependent effects of juvenile exposure to MPH or guanfacine on delay-discounting and later cocaine self-administration...
November 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jaime J Castrellon, Kendra L Seaman, Jennifer L Crawford, Jacob S Young, Christopher T Smith, Linh C Dang, Ming Hsu, Ronald L Cowan, David H Zald, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin
Some people are more willing to make immediate, risky, or costly reward-focused choices than others, which has been hypothesized to be associated with individual differences in dopamine (DA) function. In two studies using PET imaging, one empirical (Study 1: N=144 males and females across 3 samples) and one meta-analytic (Study 2: N=307 across 12 samples), we sought to characterize associations between individual differences in DA and time, probability, and physical effort discounting in human adults. Study 1 demonstrated that individual differences in DA D2-like receptors were not associated with time or probability discounting of monetary rewards in healthy humans, and associations with physical effort discounting were inconsistent across adults of different ages...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Otmane Bouchatta, Houria Manouze, Rabia Bouali-Benazzouz, Nóra Kerekes, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Pascal Fossat, Marc Landry, Mohamed Bennis
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The "neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine" (6-OHDA) lesion is a commonly used model of ADHD in rat. However, a comprehensive assessment of ADHD-like symptoms is still missing, and data in mouse remain largely unavailable. Our aim was to analyse symptoms of ADHD in the mouse neonatal 6-OHDA model. 6-OHDA mice exhibited the major ADHD-like symptoms, i.e. hyperactivity (open field), attention deficit and impulsivity (five-choice serial reaction time task)...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
2018-11-04 17:59:50
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