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Childhood development and risk factors

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14 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Aryeh D Stein, Fernando C Barros, Santosh K Bhargava, Wei Hao, Bernardo L Horta, Nanette Lee, Christopher W Kuzawa, Reynaldo Martorell, Siddarth Ramji, Alan Stein, Linda Richter
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of being born preterm or small for gestational age (SGA) on several adult outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 4518 adult participants in 5 birth cohorts from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. RESULTS: In the study population, 12.8% of males and 11.9% of females were born preterm, and 26.8% of males and 22.4% of females were born term but SGA. Adults born preterm were 1.11 cm shorter (95% CI, 0...
December 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Murray Weeks, John Cairney, T Cameron Wild, George B Ploubidis, Kiyuri Naicker, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: Previous research examining the development of anxious and depressive symptoms (i.e., internalizing symptoms) from childhood to adolescence has often assumed that trajectories of these symptoms do not vary across individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from childhood to adolescence, and to identify risk factors for membership in these trajectory groups. In particular, we sought to identify risk factors associated with early appearing (i...
July 2014: Depression and Anxiety
Sabahat C Bagci, Adam Rutland, Madoka Kumashiro, Peter K Smith, Herbert Blumberg
Past research has demonstrated the negative impact of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) on psychological well-being among children. Given research demonstrating the benefits of cross-ethnic friendship for children's intergroup attitudes, we examined whether cross-ethnic friendships would attenuate the effects of PED on well-being and resilience within a multi-ethnic context. Two hundred and forty-seven South Asian British children (M = 11 years) recruited from 37 classrooms completed measures of perceived cross-ethnic friendship quantity and quality, PED, psychological well-being, and resilience...
March 2014: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Natalie Slopen, Karestan C Koenen, Laura D Kubzansky
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether and when effects of cumulative adversity in the first 7 years of life are evident in relation to 3 childhood markers of risk for poor adult physical health. STUDY DESIGN: The study data are from an English birth cohort. Parental reports of 8 social risk factors were obtained during the child's first 7 years, and scores were created to reflect cumulative adversity at 4 developmental periods. At age 7 and 11 years, weight, height, and blood pressure (BP) were measured by clinic staff, and caregivers reported behavior problems...
March 2014: Journal of Pediatrics
Paramjit T Joshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Liping Pan, Ashleigh L May, Holly Wethington, Karen Dalenius, Laurence M Grummer-Strawn
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS: We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010-2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts...
December 2013: Pediatrics
Andréaz Dupoué, François Brischoux, Olivier Lourdais, Frédéric Angelier
To cope with environmental challenges, organisms have to adjust their behaviours and their physiology to the environmental conditions they face (i.e. allostasis). In vertebrates, such adjustments are often mediated through the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) that are well-known to activate and/or inhibit specific physiological and behavioural traits. In ectothermic species, most processes are temperature-dependent and according to previous studies, low external temperatures should be associated with low GC concentrations (both baseline and stress-induced concentrations)...
November 1, 2013: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Sheila J Cunningham, Francis Vergunst, C Neil Macrae, David J Turk
The self-reference effect (SRE) is the reliable memory advantage for information encoded about self over material encoded about other people. The developmental pathway of the SRE has proved difficult to chart, because the standard SRE task is unsuitable for young children. The current inquiry was designed to address this issue using an ownership paradigm, as encoding objects in the context of self-ownership have been shown to elicit self-referential memory advantages in adults. Pairs of 4- to 6-year-old children (n = 64) sorted toy pictures into self- and other-owned sets...
September 2013: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Gary W Evans, Dongping Li, Sara Sepanski Whipple
Childhood multiple risk factor exposure exceeds the adverse developmental impacts of singular exposures. Multiple risk factor exposure may also explain why sociodemographic variables (e.g., poverty) can have adverse consequences. Most research on multiple risk factor exposure has relied upon cumulative risk (CR) as the measure of multiple risk. CR is constructed by dichotomizing each risk factor exposure (0 = no risk; 1 = risk) and then summing the dichotomous scores. Despite its widespread use in developmental psychology and elsewhere, CR has several shortcomings: Risk is designated arbitrarily; data on risk intensity are lost; and the index is additive, precluding the possibility of statistical interactions between risk factors...
November 2013: Psychological Bulletin
Yonata Levy
This article presents current neurobiological concepts that highlight the critical role of chronological age in determining optimal development. The role of sensitive periods, experience expectancy, gene expression, and gene-age interactions is discussed. The debate between "splitters" and "lumpers" is presented in light of the review articles in this special issue. The conclusion from this study is that in a significant proportion of cases, earlier diagnoses are possible, avoiding the all-encompassing developmental delay/global developmental delay, and opening up possibilities of early interventions...
2011: Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Yonata Levy, Asher Ornoy, Yoram Nevo
A significant percentage of children, ages 0-5 years, present with developmental delays. Delays can be global (GDD), when two or more developmental areas manifest at least 6 months delays, or specific (SDD)when it relates to a single functional area. This special issue reviews etiologies as well as clinical and research uses of the term, focusing on the potential for arriving at earlier specific diagnoses in cases of CP, ADHD, ASD and language impairments (LI).
2011: Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Toby L Parcel, Lori Ann Campbell, Wenxuan Zhong
We analyze the effects of family capital on child behavior problems in the United States and Great Britain by comparing a longitudinal survey sample of 5- to 13-year-old children from the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,864) with a similar sample of children from the 1991 National Child Development Study "British Child" (N = 1,430). Findings suggest that in both societies, male children, those with health problems, and those whose mothers are divorced are at increased risk for behavior problems, while those with stronger home environments are at reduced risk...
2012: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Susan P Walker, Theodore D Wachs, Julie Meeks Gardner, Betsy Lozoff, Gail A Wasserman, Ernesto Pollitt, Julie A Carter
Poverty and associated health, nutrition, and social factors prevent at least 200 million children in developing countries from attaining their developmental potential. We review the evidence linking compromised development with modifiable biological and psychosocial risks encountered by children from birth to 5 years of age. We identify four key risk factors where the need for intervention is urgent: stunting, inadequate cognitive stimulation, iodine deficiency, and iron deficiency anaemia. The evidence is also sufficient to warrant interventions for malaria, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal depression, exposure to violence, and exposure to heavy metals...
January 13, 2007: Lancet
Sally Grantham-McGregor, Yin Bun Cheung, Santiago Cueto, Paul Glewwe, Linda Richter, Barbara Strupp
Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data--the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty--to use as indicators of poor development...
January 6, 2007: Lancet
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