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By Brooke Manor Endocrinology
Rajesh Pahwa, Kelly E Lyons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes currently available treatment options and treatment strategies, investigational treatments, and the importance of exercise for early Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The available treatment options for early Parkinson's disease have changed little in the past decade and include carbidopa/levodopa, dopamine agonists, and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors. However, we discuss changes in treatment strategies, including dosing and the use of combination therapy used in an attempt to reduce or delay the appearance of motor complications and other adverse events...
August 2014: Current Opinion in Neurology
Ivan Bodis-Wollner, Piotr B Kozlowski, Sofya Glazman, Shahnaz Miri
Behavioral, electrophysiological, and imaging data reveal impaired visual processing and altered retinal morphology in Parkinson disease. Are visual changes epiphenomena? We report the presence of misfolded α-synuclein in the retina, not hitherto shown, in discrete retinal neurons within the inner retina. They demonstrate the histopathology that may underlie impaired vision and retinal remodeling in Parkinson disease. Furthermore, the histological localization of α-synuclein gives clues to the nonsynaptic mode of α-synuclein propagation...
June 2014: Annals of Neurology
Emke Maréchal, Benjamin Denoiseux, Ellen Thys, David Crosiers, Barbara Pickut, Patrick Cras
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative brain disorder and is characterized by motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. A majority of the patients also develop non-motor symptoms. Impulse control disorders (ICD) are behavioural changes that often fail to be detected in clinical practice. The prevalence of ICD in PD varies widely from 6.1 to 31.2 % and treatment with dopaminergic medication is considered to be the greatest risk factor. Management consists mainly of reducing dopaminergic medication...
January 2015: Journal of Neurology
Viviana Gradinaru, Murtaza Mogri, Kimberly R Thompson, Jaimie M Henderson, Karl Deisseroth
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic option for intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and major depression. Because of the heterogeneity of brain tissues where electrodes are placed, it has been challenging to elucidate the relevant target cell types or underlying mechanisms of DBS. We used optogenetics and solid-state optics to systematically drive or inhibit an array of distinct circuit elements in freely moving parkinsonian rodents and found that therapeutic effects within the subthalamic nucleus can be accounted for by direct selective stimulation of afferent axons projecting to this region...
April 17, 2009: Science
Jeffrey Cummings, Stuart Isaacson, Roger Mills, Hilde Williams, Kathy Chi-Burris, Anne Corbett, Rohit Dhall, Clive Ballard
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease psychosis, which includes hallucinations and delusions, is frequent and debilitating in people with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of pimavanserin, a selective serotonin 5-HT2A inverse agonist, in this population. METHODS: In our 6 week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we enrolled adults (aged ≥40 years) with Parkinson's disease psychosis. Antipsychotic treatments were not permitted during the study, but controlled antiparkinsonian medication or deep brain stimulation was allowed...
February 8, 2014: Lancet
Hubert H Fernandez
Most, if not all, currently available drugs for Parkinson disease address dopaminergic loss and relieve symptoms. However, their adverse effects can be limiting and they do not address disease progression. Moreover, nonmotor features of Parkinson disease such as depression, dementia, and psychosis are now recognized as important and disabling. A cure remains elusive. However, promising interventions and agents are emerging. As an example, people who exercise regularly are less likely to develop Parkinson disease, and if they develop it, they tend to have slower progression...
January 2012: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
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