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Brain development

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13 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Jordi Julvez, Monica Guxens, Anne-Elie Carsin, Joan Forns, Michelle Mendez, Michelle C Turner, Jordi Sunyer
AIM: This study investigated whether duration of full breastfeeding is associated with child neuropsychological development and whether this association is explained by social, psychological, and nutritional factors within families. METHOD: Participants in this study were a population-based birth cohort in the city of Sabadell (Catalonia, Spain). Females were recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy between July 2004 and July 2006. Information about parental characteristics and breastfeeding was obtained through questionnaires...
February 2014: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Matthijs Vink, Jolanda M Derks, Janna Marie Hoogendam, Manon Hillegers, René S Kahn
Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by emotional instability. Underlying this behavior may be an imbalance between the limbic subcortical areas and the prefrontal cortex. Here, we investigated differences in these regions during adolescence and young adulthood. Fifty subjects aged 10 to 24 viewed and rated neutral, negative, and positive pictures (IAPS: International Affective Picture System), while being scanned with functional MRI. Only those trials in which there was a match between the subject's response and the IAPS rating were included in the analyses...
May 1, 2014: NeuroImage
Aldo Genovesio, Steven P Wise, Richard E Passingham
Comparative neuroanatomy shows that new prefrontal areas emerged during the evolution of anthropoid primates to augment prefrontal, parietal, and temporal areas that had evolved in earlier primates. We recently proposed that the new anthropoid areas reduce foraging errors by generating goals from current contexts and learning to do so rapidly, sometimes based on single events. Among the contexts used to generate these goals, the posterior parietal cortex provides the new prefrontal areas with information about relational metrics such as order, number, duration, length, distance and proportion, which play a crucial role in foraging choices...
February 2014: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
S Treit, Z Chen, C Rasmussen, C Beaulieu
Inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility are two key executive functions that develop in childhood and adolescence, increasing one's capacity to respond dynamically to changing external demands and refrain from impulsive behaviors. These gains evolve in concert with significant brain development. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified numerous frontal and cingulate cortical areas associated with performance on inhibition tasks, but less is known about the involvement of the underlying anatomical connectivity, namely white matter...
September 12, 2014: Neuroscience
Anders Hviid, Mads Melbye, Björn Pasternak
BACKGROUND: Studies have raised concern about an association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all singleton live births in Denmark from 1996 through 2005 (626,875 births), with follow-up through 2009. Using Danish population registries, we linked information on maternal use of SSRIs before and during pregnancy, autism spectrum disorders diagnosed in the offspring, and a range of potential confounders...
December 19, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Chaz Firestone, Brian J Scholl
A tidal wave of recent research purports to have discovered that higher-level states such as moods, action capabilities, and categorical knowledge can literally and directly affect how things look. Are these truly effects on perception, or might some instead reflect influences on judgment, memory, or response bias? Here, we exploited an infamous art-historical reasoning error (the so-called "El Greco fallacy") to demonstrate that multiple alleged top-down effects (including effects of morality on lightness perception and effects of action capabilities on spatial perception) cannot truly be effects on perception...
January 2014: Psychological Science
Zhang Chen, Min Liu, Donald W Gross, Christian Beaulieu
Understanding the development of human brain organization is critical for gaining insight into how the enhancement of cognitive processes is related to the fine-tuning of the brain network. However, the developmental trajectory of the large-scale white matter (WM) network is not fully understood. Here, using graph theory, we examine developmental changes in the organization of WM networks in 180 typically-developing participants. WM networks were constructed using whole brain tractography and 78 cortical regions of interest were extracted from each participant...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Joan Luby, Andy Belden, Kelly Botteron, Natasha Marrus, Michael P Harms, Casey Babb, Tomoyuki Nishino, Deanna Barch
IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was conducted at an academic research unit at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development in preschool children who participated in neuroimaging at school age were used to investigate the effects of poverty on brain development...
December 2013: JAMA Pediatrics
Martin H Teicher, Jacqueline A Samson
OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype. METHOD: The authors reviewed the literature on maltreatment as a risk factor for these disorders and on the clinical differences between individuals with and without a history of maltreatment who share the same diagnoses...
October 2013: American Journal of Psychiatry
Sarah Whittle, Meg Dennison, Nandita Vijayakumar, Julian G Simmons, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman, Christos Pantelis, Nicholas B Allen
OBJECTIVE: The hippocampus and amygdala have received much attention with regard to the deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment. However, it is not known if and when these effects emerge during adolescence and whether comorbid psychopathology is more likely to explain these effects. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with hippocampal and amygdala development from early to midadolescence and whether the experience of psychopathology during this period mediated the relation...
September 2013: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jonathan Y Bernard, Maria De Agostini, Anne Forhan, Toni Alfaiate, Mercedes Bonet, Valérie Champion, Monique Kaminski, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain, Marie-Aline Charles, Barbara Heude
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dose-response relationship between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development in French preschool children. STUDY DESIGN: In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, we evaluated language ability with the Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) in 1387 2-year-old children and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) in 1199 3-year-old children. Assessments were compared between breastfed and non-breastfed children and also according to breastfeeding duration in multivariable linear models, controlling for a wide range of potential confounders...
July 2013: Journal of Pediatrics
Madelon M E Riem, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Dorothée Out, Serge A R B Rombouts
Current research found that adult attachment representations influence neural, emotional, and behavioral responses to infant crying, thus validating the Berkeley Adult Attachment Interview with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This study examined amygdala activation, feelings of irritation, and the use of excessive force as indicated by grip strength using a handgrip dynamometer during exposure to infant crying and scrambled control sounds in 21 women without children. Individuals with insecure attachment representations showed heightened amygdala activation when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with secure attachment representations...
2012: Attachment & Human Development
(no author information available yet)
Using a population-based sampling strategy, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development compiled a longitudinal normative reference database of neuroimaging and correlated clinical/behavioral data from a demographically representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged newborn through early adulthood. The present paper reports brain volume data for 325 children, ages 4.5-18 years, from the first cross-sectional time point. Measures included volumes of whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), left and right lateral ventricles, frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe GM and WM, subcortical GM (thalamus, caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem...
January 2012: Cerebral Cortex
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