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brain and stress

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11 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Leah D Doane, Katharine H Zeiders
PURPOSE: To use an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the links between momentary negative affect and cortisol in a sample of adolescents preparing to transition to college. Guided by a risk and resilience framework, we also explored whether important ecological factors, perceived discrimination and social support, moderated the momentary associations between negative affect and youths' cortisol. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 77) provided salivary samples and diary reports of affect and experiences five times a day over 3 days...
May 2014: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Jarid Goodman, Rachel Marsh, Bradley S Peterson, Mark G Packard
Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a 'cognitive' memory system that depends on the hippocampus and a stimulus-response 'habit' memory system that depends on the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence...
June 2014: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Barbara L Ganzel, Pilyoung Kim, Heather Gilmore, Nim Tottenham, Elise Temple
Little is known about the long-term neural consequences of adverse life events for healthy adolescents, and this is particularly the case for events that occur after a putative stress-sensitive period in early childhood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study of healthy adolescents, we found that prior exposure to severe adverse life events was associated with current anxiety and with increased amygdala reactivity to standardized emotional stimuli (viewing of fearful faces relative to calm ones)...
November 2013: Development and Psychopathology
Tiffany T-Y Lee, Steven R Wainwright, Matthew N Hill, Liisa A M Galea, Boris B Gorzalka
Cannabinoid exposure during adolescence has adverse effects on neuroplasticity, emotional behavior, cognition, and reward sensitivity in adult rats. We investigated whether escalating doses of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 R) agonist, HU-210, in adolescence would affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral processes putatively modulated by hippocampal neurogenesis, in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Escalating doses of HU-210 (25, 50, and 100 µg/kg), or vehicle were administered from postnatal day (PND) 35 to 46...
March 2014: Hippocampus
Valentina Wiescholleck, Marion Agnès Emma André, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-dependent memory decline. Multiple forms of memory depend on adequate hippocampal function. Extinction learning comprises active inhibition of no longer relevant learned information concurrent with suppression of a previously learned reaction. It is highly dependent on context, and evidence exists that it requires hippocampal activation. In this study, we addressed whether context-based extinction as well as hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as object recognition and object-place recognition, are equally affected by moderate aging...
March 2014: Hippocampus
Lydia T S Yee, David E Warren, Joel L Voss, Melissa C Duff, Daniel Tranel, Neal J Cohen
Adaptive ongoing behavior requires using immediate sensory input to guide upcoming actions. Using a novel paradigm with volitional exploration of visuo-spatial scenes, we revealed novel deficits among hippocampal amnesic patients in effective spatial exploration of scenes, indicated by less-systematic exploration patterns than those of healthy comparison subjects. The disorganized exploration by amnesic patients occurred despite successful retention of individual object locations across the entire exploration period, indicating that exploration impairments were not secondary to rapid decay of scene information...
February 2014: Hippocampus
H M Sickmann, A R Patten, K Morch, S Sawchuk, C Zhang, R Parton, L Szlavik, B R Christie
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is deleterious to the developing brain of the fetus and leads to persistent deficits in adulthood. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a biological model for learning and memory processes and previous evidence has shown that prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) affects LTP in a sex specific manner during adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine if there are sex specific differences in adult animals and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms that contribute to these differences...
January 2014: Hippocampus
Rajita Sinha, Ania M Jastreboff
Stress is associated with obesity, and the neurobiology of stress overlaps significantly with that of appetite and energy regulation. This review will discuss stress, allostasis, the neurobiology of stress and its overlap with neural regulation of appetite, and energy homeostasis. Stress is a key risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse. High levels of stress changes eating patterns and augments consumption of highly palatable (HP) foods, which in turn increases incentive salience of HP foods and allostatic load...
May 1, 2013: Biological Psychiatry
Claudia Buss, Sonja Entringer, James M Swanson, Pathik D Wadhwa
During gestation, the fetal brain develops dramatically as structures and connections form, providing the foundation for all future development. The fetal environment plays a critical role in these early neural processes, for better or for worse. Scientists now know that exposure to maternal stress can sometimes have deleterious effects on the fetus, depending on the cause, timing, duration, and intensity of stress. Fortunately, postnatal interventions, such as a secure parent-infant bond and an enriched environment, can buffer the potential negative consequences...
March 2012: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Bruce S McEwen
Stress is a state of the mind, involving both brain and body as well as their interactions; it differs among individuals and reflects not only major life events but also the conflicts and pressures of daily life that alter physiological systems to produce a chronic stress burden that, in turn, is a factor in the expression of disease. This burden reflects the impact of not only life experiences but also genetic variations and individual health behaviors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, and substance abuse; it also reflects stable epigenetic modifications in development that set lifelong patterns of physiological reactivity and behavior through biological embedding of early environments interacting with cumulative change from experiences over the lifespan...
October 16, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Liane Young, Joan Albert Camprodon, Marc Hauser, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Rebecca Saxe
When we judge an action as morally right or wrong, we rely on our capacity to infer the actor's mental states (e.g., beliefs, intentions). Here, we test the hypothesis that the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ), an area involved in mental state reasoning, is necessary for making moral judgments. In two experiments, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to disrupt neural activity in the RTPJ transiently before moral judgment (experiment 1, offline stimulation) and during moral judgment (experiment 2, online stimulation)...
April 13, 2010: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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