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attachment across the lifespan

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22 papers 100 to 500 followers
By Grant D. Nelson, PhD Professor & Clinician of Health Psychology & Behavioral Medicine
Mohammad Ali Besharat, Zeinab Khajavi
This study examined the mediating role of ego defense mechanisms on the relationship between attachment styles and alexithymia. Four hundred and forty-three Iranian high school students (213 boys, 230 girls) participated in this study. Participants completed Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ-40), Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI), and Farsi version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (FTAS-20). Results showed a significant negative correlation between secure attachment style and alexithymia, while avoidant and ambivalent attachment styles showed significant positive associations with alexithymia...
December 2013: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Everett Waters, Dean Petters, Christopher Facompre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Gottfried Spangler
This paper explores the interplay of maternal sensitivity (or, more generally, the quality of the caregiving social environment) and infant individual dispositions in predicting infant-mother attachment. After a brief theoretical introduction, the focus turns to studies conducted during the 1980s that predicted attachment security vs. insecurity at 12 months from newborns' ability to regulate orientation and arousal. A re-analysis of two longitudinal studies, formerly coded only with the ABC system, subsequently revealed that disorganized (vs...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Germán Posada
Although Ainsworth and Bowlby's perspective on attachment relationships has instinctive underpinnings, they also recognized variability in the ways caregiving is implemented in different ecologies. Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in two different societies provided early evidence about the development of infant-mother attachment, differences in the quality of attachment relationships, and the role of maternal care in attachment development. Further, her research demonstrated the importance of an ethological approach for research within and across cultures...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Joan Stevenson-Hinde, Rebecca Chicot, Anne Shouldice, Camilla A Hinde
Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels (N = 98). Following Mary Ainsworth's lead, our maternal sensitivity measures were primarily based on ratings of direct observations. Six sets of measures were obtained: positive maternal style at home (a mean of four different ratings); providing a sensitive framework, limit setting, allowing autonomy, criticizing/cutting in (each a mean over two laboratory joint tasks); and tension-making (a mean of three different ratings in a fear-inducing task)...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Beatrice Beebe, Miriam Steele
Microanalysis research on 4-month infant-mother face-to-face communication operates like a "social microscope" and identifies aspects of maternal sensitivity and the origins of attachment with a more detailed lens. We hope to enhance a dialogue between these two paradigms, microanalysis of mother-infant communication and maternal sensitivity and emerging working models of attachment. The prediction of infant attachment from microanalytic approaches and their contribution to concepts of maternal sensitivity are described...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Jean-Francois Bureau, M Ann Easterbrooks, Ingrid Obsuth, Kate Hennighausen, Lauriane Vulliez-Coady
The current paper expands on Ainsworth's seminal construct of maternal sensitivity by exploring the developmental pathways associated with one particular form of insensitivity: maternal withdrawal. Drawing on longitudinal data from infancy to age 20 in a high-risk cohort, we highlight how maternal withdrawal over the first eight years of life is associated with child caregiving behavior and with maternal role confusion, as well as with features of borderline and antisocial personality disorders. We also present evidence for the specificity of this pathway in relation to other aspects of maternal insensitivity and other aspects of child adaptation...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Heidi Jacobsen, Tord Ivarsson, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Lars Smith, Vibeke Moe
The present study investigated attachment patterns among 60 foster children (FC) and 42 comparison children (CC) at 2 years (T1) and again at 3 years (T2) of age, as well as stability from T1 to T2. Descriptive analyses, including cross-tabulation, were used to present attachment patterns, group differences and stability from T1 to T2. Most FC were securely attached at T1, and no group differences were identified; neither the FC nor CC differed from typical children in their attachment patterns. Furthermore, the majority of children in both groups received the same classification at both time points...
2014: Attachment & Human Development
Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen
Autism is a set of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental conditions, characterised by early-onset difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted, repetitive behaviour and interests. The worldwide population prevalence is about 1%. Autism affects more male than female individuals, and comorbidity is common (>70% have concurrent conditions). Individuals with autism have atypical cognitive profiles, such as impaired social cognition and social perception, executive dysfunction, and atypical perceptual and information processing...
March 8, 2014: Lancet
Baptiste Barbot, Sasha L Heinz, Suniya S Luthar
Although adolescence is a time of individuation with increased reliance on peers, research indicates that, despite a deliberate distancing from parents, adolescents continue to seek the support and console of parental attachment figures in times of distress. The Perceived Parental Reactions to Adolescent Distress (PRAD) is a brief self-report measure developed to examine adolescents' perception of parental response under conditions of distress as measured by four conceptually and empirically distinct parental reactions to distress: Comfort, Self-Focus, Avoidance and Harshness...
2014: Attachment & Human Development
Courtney L Gosnell, Shelly L Gable
Although previous work has examined how individual differences in attachment security affect support processes for negative events, little work has looked at how attachment security affects support for positive events (capitalization). In a 10-day diary study of romantic couples, we examined the association between individual differences in attachment security and perceptions of capitalization support. We also examined how attachment security moderated the relationship between capitalization support and daily emotions, relationship satisfaction, and life satisfaction...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Arielle H Sheftall, Charles W Mathias, R Michael Furr, Donald M Dougherty
Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Nancy L Collins, Brooke C Feeney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Ruth Feldman, Esther Bamberger, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon
Reciprocity - the capacity to engage in social exchange that integrates inputs from multiple partners into a unified social event - is a cornerstone of adaptive social life that is learned within dyad-specific attachments during an early period of neuroplasticity. Yet, very little research traced the expression of children's reciprocity with their mother and father in relation to long-term outcomes. Guided by evolutionary models, we followed mothers, fathers, and their firstborn child longitudinally and observed mother-child and father-child reciprocity in infancy, preschool, and adolescence...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Jeffrey Roelofs, Linda Onckels, Peter Muris
This study investigated relationships between attachment insecurity, maladaptive cognitive schemas, and various types of psychopathological symptoms in a sample of clinically referred adolescents (N = 82). A mediation model was tested in which maladaptive schemas operated as mediators in the relations between indices of attachment quality and conduct, peer, and emotional problems. Results revealed partial support for the hypothesized mediation effect: the schema domain of disconnection/rejection acted as a mediator in the links between insecure attachment and peer problems and emotional problems...
April 2013: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Joyce Hopkins, Karen R Gouze, John V Lavigne
The aim of this study was to develop a multiple-level-of-analysis model of preschool attachment security and to determine the processes (direct and indirect) whereby factors from different domains (e.g., stress and parenting) are related to attachment during this period. This study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress, family conflict, caregiver depression symptoms, and parenting on attachment security in a large (N = 796) and diverse sample of 4-year-olds. This study used the 3-Boxes Task to assess aspects of parenting critical to sensitivity in the preschool period, labeling this construct sensitivity/scaffolding...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Katherine Pascuzzo, Chantal Cyr, Ellen Moss
Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Inge Bretherton, Ángel L Gullón-Rivera, Timothy F Page, Barbara J Oettel, Janet M Corey, Barbara J Golby
Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent Attachment Interview or PAI); and (2) these variables will be inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms and positively with social support (from mother's parents and the child's father); and (3) mother-child observations and representations will predict teacher-rated peer behavior...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Martin Pinquart, Christina Feussner, Lieselotte Ahnert
The present meta-analysis integrates results from 127 papers on attachment stability towards mothers and fathers, respectively, from infancy to early adulthood. More than twenty-one thousand attachments (n = 21,072) and 225 time intervals were explored, ranging from half a month to 29 years (348 months). An overall coefficient of r = .39 between times T1 and T2 was obtained, reflecting a medium-sized stability of attachment security. However, no significant stability was found in intervals larger than 15 years...
2013: Attachment & Human Development
Rosanneke A G Emmen, Maike Malda, Judi Mesman, Hatice Ekmekci, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
The primary goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that beliefs about the ideal sensitive mother are similar across Dutch, Moroccan, and Turkish mothers living in the Netherlands. A total of 75 mothers with at least one child between the ages of six months and six years described their views about the ideal sensitive mother using the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (Pederson, Moran, & Bento, 1999 ). These views were highly similar within and across cultural and socio-economic groups. Nevertheless, family income fully mediated the relationship between ethnic background and sensitivity beliefs; income of minority mothers was lower which was in turn predictive of a lower sensitivity belief score...
2012: Attachment & Human Development
2014-04-13 14:08:01
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