Stefan R Bornstein, Bruno Allolio, Wiebke Arlt, Andreas Barthel, Andrew Don-Wauchope, Gary D Hammer, Eystein S Husebye, Deborah P Merke, M Hassan Murad, Constantine A Stratakis, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. PARTICIPANTS: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rozalina McCoy, Steven Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Ashley Jensen, Scott Sherman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Scott Kahan, Lawrence J Cheskin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Eric C Westman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 17, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Cristina Contreras, Francisco Gonzalez, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Rubén Nogueiras, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized organ responsible for thermogenesis, a process required for maintaining body temperature. BAT is regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates lipolysis and mitochondrial uncoupling in brown adipocytes. For many years, BAT was considered to be important only in small mammals and newborn humans, but recent data have shown that BAT is also functional in adult humans. On the basis of this evidence, extensive research has been focused on BAT function, where new molecules, such as irisin and bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly BMP7 and BMP8B, as well as novel central factors and new regulatory mechanisms, such as orexins and the canonical ventomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK)-SNS-BAT axis, have been discovered and emerged as potential drug targets to combat obesity...
March 2015: Annals of Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Philip R Schauer, Deepak L Bhatt, John P Kirwan, Kathy Wolski, Stacy A Brethauer, Sankar D Navaneethan, Ali Aminian, Claire E Pothier, Esther S H Kim, Steven E Nissen, Sangeeta R Kashyap
BACKGROUND: In short-term randomized trials (duration, 1 to 2 years), bariatric surgery has been associated with improvement in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We assessed outcomes 3 years after the randomization of 150 obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes to receive either intensive medical therapy alone or intensive medical therapy plus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy. The primary end point was a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or less...
May 22, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Monique van Nielen, Edith J M Feskens, Marco Mensink, Ivonne Sluijs, Esther Molina, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Beverly Balkau, Joline W J Beulens, Heiner Boeing, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Guy Fagherazzi, Paul W Franks, Jytte Halkjaer, José Maria Huerta, Verena Katzke, Timothy J Key, Kay Tee Khaw, Vittorio Krogh, Tilman Kühn, Virginia V M Menéndez, Peter Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Olov Rolandsson, Isabelle Romieu, Carlotta Sacerdote, Maria-José Sánchez, Matthias B Schulze, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Daphne L van der A, Anne M L Würtz, Raul Zamora-Ros, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Nita G Forouhi, Elio Riboli, Nicholas J Wareham
OBJECTIVE: The long-term association between dietary protein and type 2 diabetes incidence is uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between total, animal, and plant protein intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from eight European countries, with an average follow-up time of 12...
July 2014: Diabetes Care
P Reddy
Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) refers to glucocorticoid deficiency resulting from adrenal gland disease. Central adrenal insufficiency is because of disorders of the pituitary gland (secondary) or the hypothalamus (tertiary). Long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression is commonly seen after chronic glucocorticoid therapy (iatrogenic). Transient HPA axis suppression is increasingly being reported in hospitalised patients with acute illness (relative adrenal insufficiency)...
October 2011: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Alanna Weisman, Gary F Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Guilermo E Umpierez
Many patients admitted to the hospital have diabetes mellitus-diagnosed or undiagnosed-and others develop hyperglycemia from the stress of hospitalization. This paper discusses the prevalence, outcomes, and evidence for best management of hyperglycemia and diabetes in hospitalized patients outside the critical care setting.
June 2011: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Mark A Atkinson, George S Eisenbarth, Aaron W Michels
Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven...
January 4, 2014: Lancet
S Misra, Ns Oliver, A Dornhorst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 10, 2013: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Evangelia Charmandari, Nicolas C Nicolaides, George P Chrousos
Adrenal insufficiency is the clinical manifestation of deficient production or action of glucocorticoids, with or without deficiency also in mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens. It is a life-threatening disorder that can result from primary adrenal failure or secondary adrenal disease due to impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Prompt diagnosis and management are essential. The clinical manifestations of primary adrenal insufficiency result from deficiency of all adrenocortical hormones, but they can also include signs of other concurrent autoimmune conditions...
June 21, 2014: Lancet
Dyanne P Westerberg
Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years...
March 1, 2013: American Family Physician
Dawn Smiley, Prakash Chandra, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been considered a key clinical feature of Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, increasing evidence indicates that DKA is also a common feature of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Many cases of DKA develop under stressful conditions such as trauma or infection but an increasing number of cases without precipitating cause have been reported in children and adults with T2DM. Such patients present with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis as in Type 1 diabetes mellitus but can discontinue insulin after a few months and maintain acceptable glycemic control on diet or oral agents...
November 1, 2011: Diabetes Management
P Linfoot, C Bergstrom, E Ipp
AIMS: Despite an increasing number of reports of ketoacidosis in populations with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the pathophysiology of the ketoacidosis in these patients is unclear. We therefore tested the roles of three possible mechanisms: elevated stress hormones, increased free fatty acids (FFA), and suppressed insulin secretion. METHODS: Forty-six patients who presented to the Emergency Department with decompensated diabetes (serum glucose > 22.2 mmol/l and/or ketoacid concentrations > or = 5 mmol/l), had blood sampled prior to insulin therapy...
October 2005: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
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