Anis Ben Abdeljelil, Gabrielle C Freire, Natalie Yanchar, Alexis F Turgeon, Suzanne Beno, Melanie Bérubé, Antonia Stang, Thomas Stelfox, Roger Zemek, Emilie Beaulieu, Isabelle J Gagnon, Belinda Gabbe, Francois Lauzier, Melanie Labrosse, Pier-Alexandre Tardif, Theony Deshommes, Janyce Gnanvi, Lynne Moore
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have addressed pediatric TBI in the last decade but significant variability in the use of these guidelines persists. Here, we systematically review CPGs recommendations for pediatric moderate-to-severe TBI, evaluate the quality of CPGs, synthesize the quality of evidence and strength of included recommendations, and identify knowledge gaps. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE® , Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and Web sites of organizations publishing recommendations on pediatric injury care...
November 2023: Journal of Neurotrauma
Fabrizio G Bonanno
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) management is based on a timely, rapid, definitive source control of bleeding/s and on blood loss replacement. Stopping the hemorrhage from progressing from any named and visible vessel is the main stem fundamental praxis of efficacy and effectiveness and an essential, obligatory, life-saving step. Blood loss replacement serves the purpose of preventing ischemia/reperfusion toxemia and optimizing tissue oxygenation and microcirculation dynamics. The "physiological classification of HS" dictates the timely management and suits the 'titrated hypotensive resuscitation' tactics and the 'damage control surgery' strategy...
December 29, 2022: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Torgrim Soeyland, John David Hollott, Alan Garner
External aortic compression has been investigated as a treatment for non-compressible truncal haemorrhage in trauma patients. We sought to systematically gather and tabulate the available evidence around external aortic compression. We were specifically interested in its ability to achieve hemostasis and aid in resuscitation of traumatic arrest and severe shock and to consider physiological changes and adverse effects. A scoping review approach was chosen due to the highly variable existing literature. We were guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, using the specific extension for scoping reviews...
March 2022: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Johnny Cai, Jessica Ribkoff, Sven Olson, Vikram Raghunathan, Hanny Al-Samkari, Thomas G DeLoughery, Joseph J Shatzel
Clinically significant bleeding can occur as a consequence of surgery, trauma, obstetric complications, anticoagulation, and a wide variety of disorders of hemostasis. As the causes of bleeding are diverse and not always immediately apparent, the availability of a safe, effective, and non-specific hemostatic agent is vital in a wide range of clinical settings, with antifibrinolytic agents often utilized for this purpose. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the most commonly used and widely researched antifibrinolytic agents; its role in postpartum hemorrhage, menorrhagia, trauma-associated hemorrhage, and surgical bleeding has been well defined...
February 2020: European Journal of Haematology
H-C Pape, E E Moore, T McKinley, A Sauaia
The pathophysiology after polytrauma represents a complex network of interactions. While it was thought for a long time that the direct and indirect effects of hypoperfusion are most relevant due to the endothelial permeability changes, it was discovered that the innate immune response to trauma is equally important in modifying the organ response. Recent multi center studies provided a "genetic storm" theory, according to which certain neutrophil changes are activated at the time of injury. However, a second hit phenomenon can be induced by activation of certain molecules by direct organ injury, or pathogens (damage associated molecular patterns, DAMPS - pathogen associated molecular patterns, PAMPS)...
July 2022: Injury
Kellie Wang, Ruben Santiago
INTRODUCTION: Over the last decade, tranexamic acid (TXA) has been incorporated into treatment algorithms for a multitude of emergent conditions and the evidence surrounding its role in emergency medicine continues to evolve. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this literature review is to provide an evidence-based approach to the utilization of TXA in the emergency department. DISCUSSION: The most robust trials suggest TXA may offer a modest improvement in mortality in patients at risk of significant bleeding from trauma, but is not beneficial in spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding...
June 2022: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mitchell Breitenbach, Amy Phan, Mina Botros, David Paul, Robert Molinari, Emmanuel Menga, Addisu Mesfin
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of concomitant thoracic spinal and sternal fractures and factors associated with concomitant fractures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The sternum has been implicated in stability of the upper thoracic spine, and both bony structures are included in the stable upper thoracic cage. High force trauma to the thorax can cause multiple fractures to different upper thoracic cage components...
March 2022: Injury
Marci J Fornari, Simone L Lawson
Blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) accounts for most trauma in children. Although the focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) is considered standard of care in the evaluation of adults with traumatic injuries, there is limited evidence to support its use as an isolated evaluation tool for intra-abdominal injury as a result of BAT in children. Although a positive FAST examination could obviate the need for a computed tomography scan before OR evaluation in a hemodynamically unstable patient, a negative FAST examination cannot exclude intra-abdominal injury as a result of BAT in isolation...
December 1, 2021: Pediatric Emergency Care
Gregory W J Hawryluk, Andres M Rubiano, Annette M Totten, Cindy O'Reilly, Jamie S Ullman, Susan L Bratton, Randall Chesnut, Odette A Harris, Niranjan Kissoon, Lori Shutter, Robert C Tasker, Monica S Vavilala, Jack Wilberger, David W Wright, Angela Lumba-Brown, Jamshid Ghajar
When the fourth edition of the Brain Trauma Foundation's Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury were finalized in late 2016, it was known that the results of the RESCUEicp (Trial of Decompressive Craniectomy for Traumatic Intracranial Hypertension) randomized controlled trial of decompressive craniectomy would be public after the guidelines were released. The guideline authors decided to proceed with publication but to update the decompressive craniectomy recommendations later in the spirit of "living guidelines," whereby topics are updated more frequently, and between new editions, when important new evidence is published...
September 1, 2020: Neurosurgery
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Rolf Lefering, Mike Qvick, Michael V Kay, Thomas Paffrath, Wolf Mutschler, Karl-Georg Kanz
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation of traumatic cardiorespiratory arrest patients (TCRA) is generally associated with poor outcome, however some authors report survival rates of more than 10% in blunt trauma patients. The purpose of this investigation was to determine predictive factors for mortality in trauma patients having received external chest compressions (ECC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty thousand eight hundred and fifteen patients from the Trauma Registry of the German Trauma Society were analysed (mean ISS=24...
November 2007: Resuscitation
Michael M Neeki, Fanglong Dong, Jake Toy, Reza Vaezazizi, Joe Powell, David Wong, Michael Mousselli, Massoud Rabiei, Alex Jabourian, Nichole Niknafs, Michelle Burgett-Moreno, Richard Vara, Shanna Kissel, Xian Luo-Owen, Karen R O'Bosky, Daniel Ludi, Karl Sporer, Troy Pennington, Tommy Lee, Rodney Borger, Eugene Kwong
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of death in trauma victims. Historically, paramedics have not had access to medications that specifically target the reversal of trauma-induced coagulopathies. The California Prehospital Antifibrinolytic Therapy (Cal-PAT) study seeks to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) use in the civilian prehospital setting in cases of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: The Cal-PAT study is a multi-centered, prospective, observational cohort study with a retrospective comparison...
November 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michael M Neeki, Fanglong Dong, Jake Toy, Reza Vaezazizi, Joe Powell, Nina Jabourian, Alex Jabourian, David Wong, Richard Vara, Kathryn Seiler, Troy W Pennington, Joe Powell, Chris Yoshida-McMath, Shanna Kissel, Katharine Schulz-Costello, Jamish Mistry, Matthew S Surrusco, Karen R O'Bosky, Daved Van Stralen, Daniel Ludi, Karl Sporer, Peter Benson, Eugene Kwong, Richard Pitts, John T Culhane, Rodney Borger
INTRODUCTION: The California Prehospital Antifibrinolytic Therapy (Cal-PAT) study seeks to assess the safety and impact on patient mortality of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in cases of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. The current study further aimed to assess the feasibility of prehospital TXA administration by paramedics within the framework of North American emergency medicine standards and protocols. METHODS: This is an ongoing multi-centered, prospective, observational cohort study with a retrospective chart-review comparison...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Benjamin D Walrath, Stephen Harper, Ed Barnard, Joshua M Tobin, Brendon Drew, Cord Cunningham, Chetan Kharod, James Spradling, Craig Stone, Matthew Martin
Trauma airway management is a critical skill for medical providers supporting combat casualties since it is an integral component of damage control resuscitation and surgery. This clinical practice guideline presents methods for optimizing the airway management of patients with traumatic injury in the operational medical treatment facility environment. The guidelines represent the knowledge and experience of 10 co-authors from 3 allied countries representing Emergency Medicine, Surgery and Anesthesia.
September 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Chris Evans, David O Quinlan, Paul T Engels, Jonathan Sherbino
Resuscitation of traumatic cardiac arrest is typically considered futile. Recent evidence suggests that traumatic cardiac arrest is survivable. In this article key principles in managing traumatic cardiac arrest are discussed, including the importance of rapidly seeking prognostic information, such as signs of life and point-of-care ultrasonography evidence of cardiac contractility, to inform the decision to proceed with resuscitative efforts. In addition, a rationale for deprioritizing chest compressions, steps to quickly reverse dysfunctional ventilation, techniques for temporary control of hemorrhage, and the importance of blood resuscitation are discussed...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Junichi Izawa, Taku Iwami, Koichiro Gibo, Masashi Okubo, Kentaro Kajino, Kousuke Kiyohara, Chika Nishiyama, Tatsuya Nishiuchi, Yasuyuki Hayashi, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Daisuke Kobayashi, Sho Komukai, Takashi Kawamura, Clifton W Callaway, Tetsuhisa Kitamura
BACKGROUND: Early prehospital advanced airway management (AAM) by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel has been intended to improve patient outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, few studies examine the effectiveness of early prehospital AAM. We investigated whether early prehospital AAM was associated with functionally favourable survival after adult OHCA. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of OHCA in Osaka, Japan, between 2005 and 2012...
July 2018: Resuscitation
Judith S Palfrey, Sean Palfrey
As practicing pediatricians who have lost patients to gun violence, we join our colleagues in mourning the 20 children and their teachers who were killed in Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012. Our sadness is deepened by our knowledge that the deaths, terror, and post-traumatic stress of the..
January 31, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
J E Smith, S Le Clerc, P A F Hunt
Attempts to resuscitate patients in traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) have, in the past, been viewed as futile. However, reported outcomes from TCA in the past five years, particularly from military series, are improving. The pathophysiology of TCA is different to medical causes of cardiac arrest, and therefore, treatment priorities may also need to be different. This article reviews recent literature describing the pathophysiology of TCA and describes how the military has challenged the assumption that outcome is universally poor in these patients...
December 2015: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Gil Z Shlamovitz, William R Mower, Jonathan Bergman, Jonathan Crisp, Heather K DeVore, David Hardy, Martine Sargent, Sunil D Shroff, Eric Snyder, Marshall T Morgan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Current advanced trauma life support guidelines recommend that a digital rectal examination be performed as part of the initial evaluation of all trauma patients. Our goal is to estimate the test characteristics of the digital rectal examination in trauma patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review study of consecutive trauma patients treated in our emergency department from January 2003 to February 2005 for whom the trauma team was activated and who had a documented digital rectal examination...
July 2007: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Randall M Chesnut, Nancy Temkin, Nancy Carney, Sureyya Dikmen, Carlos Rondina, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Jim Pridgeon, Jason Barber, Joan Machamer, Kelley Chaddock, Juanita M Celix, Marianna Cherner, Terence Hendrix
BACKGROUND: Intracranial-pressure monitoring is considered the standard of care for severe traumatic brain injury and is used frequently, but the efficacy of treatment based on monitoring in improving the outcome has not been rigorously assessed. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, controlled trial in which 324 patients 13 years of age or older who had severe traumatic brain injury and were being treated in intensive care units (ICUs) in Bolivia or Ecuador were randomly assigned to one of two specific protocols: guidelines-based management in which a protocol for monitoring intraparenchymal intracranial pressure was used (pressure-monitoring group) or a protocol in which treatment was based on imaging and clinical examination (imaging-clinical examination group)...
December 27, 2012: New England Journal of Medicine
H R Guly, O Bouamra, M Spiers, P Dark, T Coats, F E Lecky
AIM: The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) system classifies the severity of shock. The aim of this study is to test the validity of this classification. METHODS: Admission physiology, injury and outcome variables from adult injured patients presenting to hospitals in England and Wales between 1989 and 2007 and stored on the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, were studied. For each patient, the blood loss was estimated and patients were divided into four groups based on the estimated blood loss corresponding to the ATLS classes of shock...
May 2011: Resuscitation
2014-10-21 01:32:59
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