Shehzad Khalid, R Shane Tubbs
We have reviewed here the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature of the human brain and have proposed the various pain mechanisms that we currently know of. Essentially when tissue is damaged, peripheral nociceptors are activated continuously and prostanoids are hence produced. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and medications aim to target these prostanoids to treat the inflammatory component of pain. Normal pain tends to have a protective response. It is important for the nervous system to learn and recognize this painful stimulus earlier and quicker with repeated exposure to avoid tissue damage...
October 6, 2017: Curēus
F Verdon, J P Studer
Left pectorobrachialgia, described here in 41 patients, is a frequent rheumatoid affection seen in general practice. It causes anterior chest pain with irradiation into the left arm, and patients often interpret it as being of coronary origin. The latter, however, is characterized by its different clinical presentation. Two forms can be distinguished: the typical form, which is an isolated entity, and the second, associated with and modified by fibromyalgia. It may coexist with angina pectoris and occur after myocardial infarction...
May 28, 1988: Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift
Baruch S Krauss, Lorenzo Calligaris, Steven M Green, Egidio Barbi
Pain is common in children presenting to emergency departments with episodic illnesses, acute injuries, and exacerbation of chronic disorders. We review recognition and assessment of pain in infants and children and discuss the manifestations of pain in children with chronic illness, recurrent pain syndromes, and cognitive impairment, including the difficulties of pain management in these patients. Non-pharmacological interventions, as adjuncts to pharmacological management for acute anxiety and pain, are described by age and development...
January 2, 2016: Lancet
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sergey Motov, Bradley Rockoff, Victor Cohen, Illya Pushkar, Antonios Likourezos, Courtney McKay, Emil Soleyman-Zomalan, Peter Homel, Victoria Terentiev, Christian Fromm
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We assess and compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of subdissociative intravenous-dose ketamine with morphine in emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial evaluating ED patients aged 18 to 55 years and experiencing moderate to severe acute abdominal, flank, or musculoskeletal pain, defined as a numeric rating scale score greater than or equal to 5. Patients were randomized to receive ketamine at 0...
September 2015: Annals of Emergency Medicine
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bernd A Leidel, Chlodwig Kirchhoff, Viktoria Bogner, Volker Braunstein, Peter Biberthaler, Karl-Georg Kanz
INTRODUCTION: Current European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines recommend intraosseous (IO) vascular access, if intravenous (IV) access is not readily available. Because central venous catheterisation (CVC) is an established alternative for in-hospital resuscitation, we compared IO access versus landmark-based CVC in adults with difficult peripheral veins. METHODS: In this prospective observational study we investigated success rates on first attempt and procedure times of IO access versus central venous catheterisation (CVC) in adults (≥ 18 years of age) with inaccessible peripheral veins under trauma or medical resuscitation in a level I trauma centre emergency department...
January 2012: Resuscitation
Teryl K Nuckols, Laura Anderson, Ioana Popescu, Allison L Diamant, Brian Doyle, Paul Di Capua, Roger Chou
BACKGROUND: Deaths due to prescription opioid overdoses have increased dramatically. High-quality guidelines could help clinicians mitigate risks associated with opioid therapy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the quality and content of guidelines on the use of opioids for chronic pain. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, National Guideline Clearinghouse, specialty society Web sites, and international guideline clearinghouses (searched in July 2013). STUDY SELECTION: Guidelines published between January 2007 and July 2013 addressing the use of opioids for chronic pain in adults were selected...
January 7, 2014: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Céline Gelinas, Yangmei Li, Mary Ann Pollmann-Mudryj, Jennifer Innis, Amanda McFarlan, Sonya Canzian
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that patients in the intensive care unit experience high levels of pain. While many of these patients are nonverbal at some point during their stay, there are few valid tools available to assess pain in this group. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity and clinical utility of two pain assessment tools, the revised Adult Non-Verbal Pain Scale (NVPS-R) and the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT), in a trauma and neurosurgical patient population...
November 2013: Pain Research & Management
Gérald Chanques, Jean-François Payen, Grégoire Mercier, Sylvie de Lattre, Eric Viel, Boris Jung, Moussa Cissé, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Samir Jaber
PURPOSE: To validate an adaptation of the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) for its use in non-intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients unable to self-report their pain because of the occurrence of delirium. The "vocalization" domain was inserted to construct the BPS-non intubated (BPS-NI) scale, ranging from 3 (no pain) to 12 (most pain). DESIGN: Prospective psychometric study in a medical-surgical ICU. METHODS: The same physician and one bedside nurse rated pain in non-intubated patients unable to self-report their pain during four conditions: before and after a catheter dressing change (non-nociceptive procedure) and before and after turning the patient (nociceptive procedure)...
December 2009: Intensive Care Medicine
Scott G Weiner, Jeanmarie Perrone, Lewis S Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2013: Annals of Emergency Medicine
D S Wang, G Sternbach, J Varon
The use of the opioid antagonist naloxone is well known to the experienced health care provider. The availability of the longer acting opioid antagonist nalmefene has several potential benefits in clinical practice. Nalmefene has a plasma half-life of almost 11 h, compared to 60-90 min for naloxone. Nalmefene has been shown to reverse opioid intoxication for as long as 8 h, reducing the need for continuous monitoring of intoxicated patients and repeated dosing of naloxone. Single dose administration has also been used effectively in the reversal of opiate-assisted conscious sedation...
May 1998: Journal of Emergency Medicine
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Meredith Borland, Ian Jacobs, Barbara King, Debra O'Brien
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We compare the efficacy of intranasal fentanyl versus intravenous morphine in a pediatric population presenting to an emergency department (ED) with acute long-bone fractures. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in a tertiary pediatric ED between September 2001 and January 2005. A convenience sample of children aged 7 to 15 years with clinically deformed closed long-bone fractures was included to receive either active intravenous morphine (10 mg/mL) and intranasal placebo or active intranasal concentrated fentanyl (150 microg/mL) and intravenous placebo...
March 2007: Annals of Emergency Medicine