Trish L Varao-Sousa, Alan Kingstone
The present study investigated what impact the presentation style of a classroom lecture has on memory, mind wandering, and the subjective factors of interest and motivation. We examined if having a professor lecturing live versus on video alters the learning experience of the students in the classroom. During the lectures, students were asked to report mind wandering and later complete a memory test. The lecture format was manipulated such that all the students received two lectures, one live and one a pre-recorded video...
2015: PloS One
Lukas W Richards, Amy T Wang, Saswati Mahapatra, Sarah M Jenkins, Nerissa M Collins, Thomas J Beckman, Christopher M Wittich
During lectures, a pause procedure (the presenter pauses so students can discuss content) can improve educational outcomes. We aimed to determine whether (1) continuing medical education (CME) presentations with a pause procedure were evaluated more favorably and (2) a pause procedure improved recall. In this randomized controlled intervention study of all participants (N = 214) at the Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Board Review course, 48 lectures were randomly assigned to an intervention (pause procedure) or control (traditional lecture) group...
January 2017: Medical Teacher
Edward J Krall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Clinical Medicine & Research
L Pangaro
Progress in improving the credibility of teachers' descriptive evaluations of students and residents has not kept pace with the progress made in improving the credibility of more quantified methods, such as multiple-choice examinations and standardized patient examinations of clinical skills. This article addresses innovative approaches to making the ongoing in-training evaluation (ITEv) of trainees during their clinical experiences more reliable and valid. The innovations include the development of a standard vocabulary for describing the progress of trainees from "reporter" to "interpreter" to "manager" and "educator" (RIME), the use of formal evaluation sessions, and closer consideration of the unit of clinical evaluation (the case, the rotation, or the year)...
November 1999: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Pat Croskerry
AIM: Recently, a growing awareness has developed of the extraordinary complexity of factors that influence the clinical reasoning underpinning the diagnostic process. The aim of the present report is to delineate these factors and suggest strategies for dealing more effectively with this complexity. METHOD: Six major clusters of factors are described here: (A) individual characteristics of the decision maker, (B) individual intellectual and cognitive styles, (C) ambient and homeostatic factors, (D) factors in the work environment including team factors, (E) characteristics of the medical condition, and (F) factors associated with the patient...
August 2018: Medical Teacher
Marie-Claude Audétat, Suzanne Laurin, Valérie Dory, Bernard Charlin, Mathieu R Nendaz
Part II of this AMEE Guide provides a detailed overview of the main difficulties in clinical reasoning, including the cues to look out for in clinical supervision, the root causes of each difficulty and targeted remediation strategies. Specific challenges and issues related to the management of clinical reasoning difficulties will also be discussed.
August 2017: Medical Teacher
Marie-Claude Audétat, Suzanne Laurin, Valérie Dory, Bernard Charlin, Mathieu R Nendaz
There are many obstacles to the timely identification of clinical reasoning difficulties in health professions education. This guide aims to provide readers with a framework for supervising clinical reasoning and identifying the potential difficulties as they may occur at each step of the reasoning process.
August 2017: Medical Teacher
Denis Dumas, Dario M Torre, Steven J Durning
Clinical reasoning-the steps up to and including establishing a diagnosis and/or therapy-is a fundamentally important mental process for physicians. Unfortunately, mounting evidence suggests that errors in clinical reasoning lead to substantial problems for medical professionals and patients alike, including suboptimal care, malpractice claims, and rising health care costs. For this reason, cognitive strategies by which clinical reasoning may be improved-and that many expert clinicians are already using-are highly relevant for all medical professionals, educators, and learners...
May 2018: Academic Medicine
Brian H Willis, Helen Beebee, Daniel S Lasserson
This is an overview of the principles that underpin philosophy of science and how they may provide a framework for the diagnostic process. Although philosophy dates back to antiquity, it is only more recently that philosophers have begun to enunciate the scientific method. Since Aristotle formulated deduction, other modes of reasoning including induction, inference to best explanation, falsificationism, theory-laden observations and Bayesian inference have emerged. Thus, rather than representing a single overriding dogma, the scientific method is a toolkit of ideas and principles of reasoning...
October 2013: Family Practice
Geoffrey R Norman, Sandra D Monteiro, Jonathan Sherbino, Jonathan S Ilgen, Henk G Schmidt, Silvia Mamede
Contemporary theories of clinical reasoning espouse a dual processing model, which consists of a rapid, intuitive component (Type 1) and a slower, logical and analytical component (Type 2). Although the general consensus is that this dual processing model is a valid representation of clinical reasoning, the causes of diagnostic errors remain unclear. Cognitive theories about human memory propose that such errors may arise from both Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Errors in Type 1 reasoning may be a consequence of the associative nature of memory, which can lead to cognitive biases...
January 2017: Academic Medicine
James B Reilly, Alexis R Ogdie, Joan M Von Feldt, Jennifer S Myers
BACKGROUND: Trends in medical education have reflected the patient safety movement's initial focus on systems. While the role of cognitive-based diagnostic errors has been increasingly recognised among safety experts, literature describing strategies to teach about this important problem is scarce. METHODS: 48 PGY-2 internal medicine residents participated in a three-part, 1-year curriculum in cognitive bias and diagnostic error. Residents completed a multiple-choice test designed to assess the recognition and knowledge of common heuristics and biases both before and after the curriculum...
December 2013: BMJ Quality & Safety
Celeste S Royce, Margaret M Hayes, Richard M Schwartzstein
Diagnostic errors contribute to as many as 70% of medical errors. Prevention of diagnostic errors is more complex than building safety checks into health care systems; it requires an understanding of critical thinking, of clinical reasoning, and of the cognitive processes through which diagnoses are made. When a diagnostic error is recognized, it is imperative to identify where and how the mistake in clinical reasoning occurred. Cognitive biases may contribute to errors in clinical reasoning. By understanding how physicians make clinical decisions, and examining how errors due to cognitive biases occur, cognitive bias awareness training and debiasing strategies may be developed to decrease diagnostic errors and patient harm...
February 2019: Academic Medicine
Ali H Mokdad, Katherine Ballestros, Michelle Echko, Scott Glenn, Helen E Olsen, Erin Mullany, Alex Lee, Abdur Rahman Khan, Alireza Ahmadi, Alize J Ferrari, Amir Kasaeian, Andrea Werdecker, Austin Carter, Ben Zipkin, Benn Sartorius, Berrin Serdar, Bryan L Sykes, Chris Troeger, Christina Fitzmaurice, Colin D Rehm, Damian Santomauro, Daniel Kim, Danny Colombara, David C Schwebel, Derrick Tsoi, Dhaval Kolte, Elaine Nsoesie, Emma Nichols, Eyal Oren, Fiona J Charlson, George C Patton, Gregory A Roth, H Dean Hosgood, Harvey A Whiteford, Hmwe Kyu, Holly E Erskine, Hsiang Huang, Ira Martopullo, Jasvinder A Singh, Jean B Nachega, Juan R Sanabria, Kaja Abbas, Kanyin Ong, Karen Tabb, Kristopher J Krohn, Leslie Cornaby, Louisa Degenhardt, Mark Moses, Maryam Farvid, Max Griswold, Michael Criqui, Michelle Bell, Minh Nguyen, Mitch Wallin, Mojde Mirarefin, Mostafa Qorbani, Mustafa Younis, Nancy Fullman, Patrick Liu, Paul Briant, Philimon Gona, Rasmus Havmoller, Ricky Leung, Ruth Kimokoti, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Simon I Hay, Simon Yadgir, Stan Biryukov, Stein Emil Vollset, Tahiya Alam, Tahvi Frank, Talha Farid, Ted Miller, Theo Vos, Till Bärnighausen, Tsegaye Telwelde Gebrehiwot, Yuichiro Yano, Ziyad Al-Aly, Alem Mehari, Alexis Handal, Amit Kandel, Ben Anderson, Brian Biroscak, Dariush Mozaffarian, E Ray Dorsey, Eric L Ding, Eun-Kee Park, Gregory Wagner, Guoqing Hu, Honglei Chen, Jacob E Sunshine, Jagdish Khubchandani, Janet Leasher, Janni Leung, Joshua Salomon, Jurgen Unutzer, Leah Cahill, Leslie Cooper, Masako Horino, Michael Brauer, Nicholas Breitborde, Peter Hotez, Roman Topor-Madry, Samir Soneji, Saverio Stranges, Spencer James, Stephen Amrock, Sudha Jayaraman, Tejas Patel, Tomi Akinyemiju, Vegard Skirbekk, Yohannes Kinfu, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Jost B Jonas, Christopher J L Murray
Introduction: Several studies have measured health outcomes in the United States, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of patterns of health by state. Objective: To use the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to report trends in the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors at the state level from 1990 to 2016. Design and Setting: A systematic analysis of published studies and available data sources estimates the burden of disease by age, sex, geography, and year...
April 10, 2018: JAMA
Faraz Mahmood, Eitezaz Mahmood, Robert Gregory Dorfman, John Mitchell, Feroze-Udin Mahmood, Stephanie B Jones, Robina Matyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Thomas J Van Hoof, Terrence J Doyle
Learning science is an emerging interdisciplinary field that offers educators key insights about what happens in the brain when learning occurs. In addition to explanations about the learning process, which includes memory and involves different parts of the brain, learning science offers effective strategies to inform the planning and implementation of activities and programs in continuing education and continuing professional development. This article provides a brief description of learning, including the three key steps of encoding, consolidation and retrieval...
September 2018: Medical Teacher
Edward Krupat, Jeremy B Richards, Amy M Sullivan, Thomas J Fleenor, Richard M Schwartzstein
PURPOSE: Case-based collaborative learning (CBCL) is a novel small-group approach that borrows from team-based learning principles and incorporates elements of problem-based learning (PBL) and case-based learning. CBCL includes a preclass readiness assurance process and case-based in-class activities in which students respond to focused, open-ended questions individually, discuss their answers in groups of 4, and then reach consensus in larger groups of 16. This study introduces CBCL and assesses its effectiveness in one course at Harvard Medical School...
May 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Christopher R Stephenson, Amy T Wang, Jason H Szostek, Sara L Bonnes, John T Ratelle, Saswati Mahapatra, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Thomas J Beckman, Christopher M Wittich
INTRODUCTION: New teaching approaches for CME are needed. In flipped classrooms, coursework is completed beforehand and applied during class time. Studies of flipped classrooms and their potential benefits in CME have not been published. We sought to develop and validate an instrument measuring flipped classroom perceptions, identify whether participation changed perceptions, and determine which flipped classroom components were perceived as most effective. METHODS: In this cross-sectional validation study, 167 participants in the Mayo Clinic's 2015 Internal Medicine Board Review course received surveys...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Donna M Windish, Marie Diener-West
As educators seek confirmation of successful trainee achievement, medical education must move toward a more evidence-based approach to teaching and evaluation. Although medical training often provides physicians with a general background in biostatistics, many are not prepared to apply these skills. This can hinder clinician educators as they wish to develop, analyze and disseminate their scholarly work. This paper is intended to be a concise educational tool and guide for choosing and interpreting statistical tests aimed toward medical education assessment...
June 2006: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Renée E Stalmeijer, Nancy Mcnaughton, Walther N K A Van Mook
Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p...
November 2014: Medical Teacher
Susan Jamieson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2004: Medical Education
2018-03-20 11:35:27
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