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Principles of medical education

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183 papers 1000+ followers Key papers used in the Principles of medical education: maximizing your teaching skills CME course - Follow us on Twitter @BIDMC_Education
By Shapiro Institute Education Institute at BIDMC and HMS, Boston
Celeste S Royce, Margaret M Hayes, Richard M Schwartzstein
Diagnostic errors contribute to as many as 70% of medical errors. Prevention of diagnostic errors is more complex than building safety checks into health care systems; it requires an understanding of critical thinking, of clinical reasoning, and of the cognitive processes through which diagnoses are made. When a diagnostic error is recognized, it is imperative to identify where and how the mistake in clinical reasoning occurred. Cognitive biases may contribute to errors in clinical reasoning. By understanding how physicians make clinical decisions, and examining how errors due to cognitive biases occur, cognitive bias awareness training and debiasing strategies may be developed to decrease diagnostic errors and patient harm...
February 2019: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ali H Mokdad, Katherine Ballestros, Michelle Echko, Scott Glenn, Helen E Olsen, Erin Mullany, Alex Lee, Abdur Rahman Khan, Alireza Ahmadi, Alize J Ferrari, Amir Kasaeian, Andrea Werdecker, Austin Carter, Ben Zipkin, Benn Sartorius, Berrin Serdar, Bryan L Sykes, Chris Troeger, Christina Fitzmaurice, Colin D Rehm, Damian Santomauro, Daniel Kim, Danny Colombara, David C Schwebel, Derrick Tsoi, Dhaval Kolte, Elaine Nsoesie, Emma Nichols, Eyal Oren, Fiona J Charlson, George C Patton, Gregory A Roth, H Dean Hosgood, Harvey A Whiteford, Hmwe Kyu, Holly E Erskine, Hsiang Huang, Ira Martopullo, Jasvinder A Singh, Jean B Nachega, Juan R Sanabria, Kaja Abbas, Kanyin Ong, Karen Tabb, Kristopher J Krohn, Leslie Cornaby, Louisa Degenhardt, Mark Moses, Maryam Farvid, Max Griswold, Michael Criqui, Michelle Bell, Minh Nguyen, Mitch Wallin, Mojde Mirarefin, Mostafa Qorbani, Mustafa Younis, Nancy Fullman, Patrick Liu, Paul Briant, Philimon Gona, Rasmus Havmoller, Ricky Leung, Ruth Kimokoti, Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Simon I Hay, Simon Yadgir, Stan Biryukov, Stein Emil Vollset, Tahiya Alam, Tahvi Frank, Talha Farid, Ted Miller, Theo Vos, Till Bärnighausen, Tsegaye Telwelde Gebrehiwot, Yuichiro Yano, Ziyad Al-Aly, Alem Mehari, Alexis Handal, Amit Kandel, Ben Anderson, Brian Biroscak, Dariush Mozaffarian, E Ray Dorsey, Eric L Ding, Eun-Kee Park, Gregory Wagner, Guoqing Hu, Honglei Chen, Jacob E Sunshine, Jagdish Khubchandani, Janet Leasher, Janni Leung, Joshua Salomon, Jurgen Unutzer, Leah Cahill, Leslie Cooper, Masako Horino, Michael Brauer, Nicholas Breitborde, Peter Hotez, Roman Topor-Madry, Samir Soneji, Saverio Stranges, Spencer James, Stephen Amrock, Sudha Jayaraman, Tejas Patel, Tomi Akinyemiju, Vegard Skirbekk, Yohannes Kinfu, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Jost B Jonas, Christopher J L Murray
Introduction: Several studies have measured health outcomes in the United States, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of patterns of health by state. Objective: To use the results of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) to report trends in the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors at the state level from 1990 to 2016. Design and Setting: A systematic analysis of published studies and available data sources estimates the burden of disease by age, sex, geography, and year...
April 10, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Faraz Mahmood, Eitezaz Mahmood, Robert Gregory Dorfman, John Mitchell, Feroze-Udin Mahmood, Stephanie B Jones, Robina Matyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Thomas J Van Hoof, Terrence J Doyle
Learning science is an emerging interdisciplinary field that offers educators key insights about what happens in the brain when learning occurs. In addition to explanations about the learning process, which includes memory and involves different parts of the brain, learning science offers effective strategies to inform the planning and implementation of activities and programs in continuing education and continuing professional development. This article provides a brief description of learning, including the three key steps of encoding, consolidation and retrieval...
September 2018: Medical Teacher
Edward Krupat, Jeremy B Richards, Amy M Sullivan, Thomas J Fleenor, Richard M Schwartzstein
PURPOSE: Case-based collaborative learning (CBCL) is a novel small-group approach that borrows from team-based learning principles and incorporates elements of problem-based learning (PBL) and case-based learning. CBCL includes a preclass readiness assurance process and case-based in-class activities in which students respond to focused, open-ended questions individually, discuss their answers in groups of 4, and then reach consensus in larger groups of 16. This study introduces CBCL and assesses its effectiveness in one course at Harvard Medical School...
May 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Christopher R Stephenson, Amy T Wang, Jason H Szostek, Sara L Bonnes, John T Ratelle, Saswati Mahapatra, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Thomas J Beckman, Christopher M Wittich
INTRODUCTION: New teaching approaches for CME are needed. In flipped classrooms, coursework is completed beforehand and applied during class time. Studies of flipped classrooms and their potential benefits in CME have not been published. We sought to develop and validate an instrument measuring flipped classroom perceptions, identify whether participation changed perceptions, and determine which flipped classroom components were perceived as most effective. METHODS: In this cross-sectional validation study, 167 participants in the Mayo Clinic's 2015 Internal Medicine Board Review course received surveys...
2016: Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions
Donna M Windish, Marie Diener-West
As educators seek confirmation of successful trainee achievement, medical education must move toward a more evidence-based approach to teaching and evaluation. Although medical training often provides physicians with a general background in biostatistics, many are not prepared to apply these skills. This can hinder clinician educators as they wish to develop, analyze and disseminate their scholarly work. This paper is intended to be a concise educational tool and guide for choosing and interpreting statistical tests aimed toward medical education assessment...
June 2006: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Renée E Stalmeijer, Nancy Mcnaughton, Walther N K A Van Mook
Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p...
November 2014: Medical Teacher
Susan Jamieson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2004: Medical Education
Anthony R Artino, Jeffrey S La Rochelle, Kent J Dezee, Hunter Gehlbach
In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales...
June 2014: Medical Teacher
Andrew W Phillips, Anthony R Artino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Karen E Schifferdecker, Virginia A Reed
CONTEXT: Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis and integration of both qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The benefits of a mixed methods approach are particularly evident when studying new questions or complex initiatives and interactions, which is often the case in medical education research. Basic guidelines for when to use mixed methods research and how to design a mixed methods study in medical education research are not readily available. METHODS: The purpose of this paper is to remedy that situation by providing an overview of mixed methods research, research design models relevant for medical education research, examples of each research design model in medical education research, and basic guidelines for medical education researchers interested in mixed methods research...
July 2009: Medical Education
K Malterud
Qualitative research methods could help us to improve our understanding of medicine. Rather than thinking of qualitative and quantitative strategies as incompatible, they should be seen as complementary. Although procedures for textual interpretation differ from those of statistical analysis, because of the different type of data used and questions to be answered, the underlying principles are much the same. In this article I propose relevance, validity, and reflexivity as overall standards for qualitative inquiry...
August 11, 2001: Lancet
Subha Ramani, Karen Mann
Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions...
May 2016: Medical Teacher
Bridget C O'Brien, Ilene B Harris, Thomas J Beckman, Darcy A Reed, David A Cook
PURPOSE: Standards for reporting exist for many types of quantitative research, but currently none exist for the broad spectrum of qualitative research. The purpose of the present study was to formulate and define standards for reporting qualitative research while preserving the requisite flexibility to accommodate various paradigms, approaches, and methods. METHOD: The authors identified guidelines, reporting standards, and critical appraisal criteria for qualitative research by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and Google through July 2013; reviewing the reference lists of retrieved sources; and contacting experts...
September 2014: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Taylor Sawyer, Marjorie White, Pavan Zaveri, Todd Chang, Anne Ades, Heather French, JoDee Anderson, Marc Auerbach, Lindsay Johnston, David Kessler
Acquisition of competency in procedural skills is a fundamental goal of medical training. In this Perspective, the authors propose an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training. The framework was developed based on a review of the literature using a critical synthesis approach and builds on earlier models of procedural skill training in medicine. The authors begin by describing the fundamentals of procedural skill development. Then, a six-step pedagogical framework for procedural skills training is presented: Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, and Maintain...
August 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Dario M Torre, Steven J Durning, Barbara J Daley
BACKGROUND: Concept maps have been used as a learning tool in a variety of educational setting and provide an opportunity to explore learners’ knowledge structures and promote critical thinking and understanding. Concept mapping is an instructional strategy for individual and group learning that involves integration of knowledge and creation of meaning by relating concepts. AIMS: The following tips outline an approach to foster meaningful learning using concept maps...
2013: Medical Teacher
Suzanne Sarfaty, Deborah Kolb, Rosalind Barnett, Laura Szalacha, Cheryl Caswell, Thomas Inui, Phyllis L Carr
AIMS: Negotiation and its use in academic medicine have not been studied. Little is known about faculty experience with negotiation or its potential benefits for academe. Barriers to negotiation and how they can be addressed, especially for faculty without perceived skill in negotiation, are unknown. METHODS: To better understand the problems that such faculty experience, we completed in-depth, individual telephone interviews of 20 academic medical faculty at 11 of the 24 medical schools in the National Faculty Survey, all of whom perceived difficulty in negotiation...
March 2007: Journal of Women's Health
Danny Ertel
Many deals that look good on paper never materialize into value-creating endeavors. Often, the problem begins at the negotiating table. In fact, the very person everyone thinks is pivotal to a deal's success--the negotiator--is often the one who undermines it. That's because most negotiators have a deal maker mind-set: They see the signed contract as the final destination rather than the start of a cooperative venture. What's worse, most companies reward negotiators on the basis of the number and size of the deals they're signing, giving them no incentive to change...
November 2004: Harvard Business Review
Tony Schwartz
As the demands of the workplace keep rising, many people respond by putting in ever longer hours, which inevitably leads to burnout that costs both the organization and the employee. Meanwhile, people take for granted what fuels their capacity to work--their energy. Increasing that capacity is the best way to get more done faster and better. Time is a finite resource, but energy is different. It has four wellsprings--the body, emotions, mind, and spirit--and in each, it can be systematically expanded and renewed...
October 2007: Harvard Business Review
2018-03-19 13:38:06
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