Alexander E Weber, William Zuke, Erik N Mayer, Brian Forsythe, Alan Getgood, Nikhil N Verma, Bernard R Bach, Asheesh Bedi, Brian J Cole
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in lateral-based soft tissue reconstructive techniques as augments to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The objective of these procedures is to minimize anterolateral rotational instability of the knee after surgery. Despite the relatively rapid increase in surgical application of these techniques, many clinical questions remain. PURPOSE: To provide a comprehensive update on the current state of these lateral-based augmentation procedures by reviewing the origins of the surgical techniques, the biomechanical data to support their use, and the clinical results to date...
March 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jay R Lieberman, Nathanael Heckmann
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is recommended for all patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty. The selection of an appropriate prophylaxis regimen represents a balance between efficacy and safety. To help orthopaedic surgeons select an appropriate VTE prophylaxis regimen for their patients, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American College of Chest Physicians have developed guidelines. These guidelines do not recommend an optimal regimen, however. Rather, an individualized prophylaxis regimen that balances efficacy and safety is recommended for each patient, based on various risk factors...
December 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Matthew J Toth, Richard S Yoon, Frank A Liporace, Kenneth J Koval
The diagnosis and treatment of ankle fractures has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Recent topics of interest have included indications for operative treatment of isolated lateral malleolus fractures, need for fixation of the posterior malleolus, utilization of the posterolateral approach, treatment of the syndesmosis, and the potential role of fibular nailing. In this update, we concisely review these topics and what to expect in the future literature.
October 2017: Injury
Anais Legrand, Yoav Kaufman, Chao Long, Paige M Fox
Tendon injuries are encountered after major and minor hand trauma. Despite meticulous repair technique, adhesion formation can occur, limiting recovery. Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the mechanism of tendon healing and adhesions, clinically applicable solutions to prevent adhesions remain elusive. The goal of this paper is to review the most recent literature relating to the tendon healing and adhesion prevention.
September 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
Wolf Petersen, Ingo Rembitzki, Christian Liebau
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a frequent cause of anterior knee pain in athletes, which affects patients with and without structural patellofemoral joint (PFJ) damage. Most younger patients do not have any structural changes to the PFJ, such as an increased Q angle and a cartilage damage. This clinical entity is known as patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Older patients usually present with signs of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). A key factor in PFPS development is dynamic valgus of the lower extremity, which leads to lateral patellar maltracking...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Kevin J DiSilvestro, Adam J Santoro, Fotios P Tjoumakaris, Eric A Levicoff, Kevin B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Patients often ask their doctors when they can safely return to driving after orthopaedic injuries and procedures, but the data regarding this topic are diverse and sometimes conflicting. Some studies provide observer-reported outcome measures, such as brake response time or simulators, to estimate when patients can safely resume driving after surgery, and patient survey data describing when patients report a return to driving, but they do not all agree. We performed a systematic review and quality appraisal for available data regarding when patients are safe to resume driving after common orthopaedic surgeries and injuries affecting the ability to drive...
December 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Philip S Pastides, Matthew J Welck, Wasim S Khan
There is a considerable amount of interest in the future role of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) and tissue engineering techniques to manage conditions within the musculoskeletal system. Repair of soft tissue and bone defects, in the early stages of injury, may lead to a reduction in progression of symptoms. Furthermore, troublesome soft tissue injuries that are notoriously fraught with problems either in healing or function, could be augmented with such techniques. The aim of this review paper is to look at the advances in such strategies to tackle these problems and assess how BMDSCs, with the aid of growth factors and scaffolds, are being used in vitro, animal and even human models to treat problems within the field of trauma and orthopaedics...
July 18, 2015: World Journal of Orthopedics
Gillian E Cook, Brent D Bates, Paul Tornetta, Michael D McKee, Saam Morshed, Gerard P Slobogean, Emil H Schemitsch
Assessment of fracture union is a critical concept in clinical orthopaedics; however, there is no established "gold standard" for fracture healing. This review provides an overview of the problems related to the assessment of fracture healing, examines currently available tools to determine union, discusses the role of functional outcomes in the assessment of fracture healing, and finally evaluates healing outcome measures as they pertain to fracture trials. Because there is no universally accepted method to determine fracture healing, orthopaedic surgeons must rely on a range of tools that can include: radiographic assessment, mechanical assessment, serologic markers, and clinical evaluation (including functional outcomes)...
December 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Michael Bottlang, Christine E Schemitsch, Aaron Nauth, Milton Routt, Kenneth A Egol, Gillian E Cook, Emil H Schemitsch
Application of the correct fixation construct is critical for fracture healing and long-term stability; however, it is a complex issue with numerous significant factors. This review describes a number of common fracture types and evaluates their currently available fracture fixation constructs. In the setting of complex elbow instability, stable fixation or radial head replacement with an appropriately sized implant in conjunction with ligamentous repair is required to restore stability. For unstable sacral fractures with vertical or multiplanar instabilities, "standard" iliosacral screw fixation is not sufficient...
December 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Pietro Randelli, Davide Cucchi, Usman Butt
PURPOSE: The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included...
February 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Robert F LaPrade, Andrew G Geeslin, Iain R Murray, Volker Musahl, Jason P Zlotnicki, Frank Petrigliano, Barton J Mann
Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries...
December 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Panagiotis G Ntagiopoulos, David Dejour
UNLABELLED: Trochleoplasty is a surgical procedure, whose goal is to change the abnormal shape of the femoral trochlea in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation. Such surgeries that aim to reshape the articular surface of a bone without damaging it are quite unique in orthopaedic surgery. Although in the beginning, trochleoplasty was reserved for the refractory cases where previous surgery has failed, the last years it became more and more popular because of a better knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics and a greater availability of instruments...
October 2014: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Daphne Pinkas, Tony S Wanich, Anthony A DePalma, Konrad I Gruson
Proximal humerus fractures remain one of the most common orthopaedic injuries, particularly in the elderly. Displaced fractures often require surgery, and management can be challenging because of comminution and poor bone quality. Despite advances in surgical technique and implant design, reoperation for malunion or nonunion of the tuberosity (arthroplasty) or screw penetration (open reduction and internal fixation) remains problematic. Recent studies have demonstrated acceptable results following nonsurgical management of displaced proximal humerus fractures in elderly, low-demand patients...
August 2014: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Matthew J Kraeutler, K Linnea Welton, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade, Eric C McCarty
In 1879, Paul Segond described an avulsion fracture (now known as a Segond fracture) at the anterolateral proximal tibia with the presence of a fibrous band at the location of this fracture. Although references to this ligament were occasionally made in the anatomy literature after Segond's discovery, it was not until 2012 that Vincent et al named this ligament what we know it as today, the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. The ALL originates near the lateral epicondyle of the distal femur and inserts on the proximal tibia near Gerdy's tubercle...
April 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
David E Ramski, Wajdi W Kanj, Corinna C Franklin, Keith D Baldwin, Theodore J Ganley
BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the optimal initial treatment for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and adolescents has not resulted in a clear consensus for initial nonoperative treatment or operative reconstruction. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically analyze aggregated data from the literature to determine if a benefit exists for either nonoperative or early operative treatment for ACL injuries in the pediatric patient...
November 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Luis Natera Cisneros, Juan Sarasquete Reiriz
Surgical management of acute unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries should be focused on realigning the torn ends of the ligaments to allow for healing potential. The most widely utilized treatment methods incorporate the use of metal hardware, which can alter the biomechanics of the acromioclavicular joint. This leads to a second surgical procedure for hardware removal once the ligaments have healed. Patients with unstable acromioclavicular joint injuries managed with arthroscopy-assisted procedures have shown good and excellent clinical outcomes, without the need for a second operation...
December 2016: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthop├ędie Traumatologie
Emilie Cheung, Matthew Willis, Matthew Walker, Rachel Clark, Mark A Frankle
Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was initially used to manage complex shoulder problems. Indications have been expanded to include rotator cuff arthropathy, massive rotator cuff tear, failed shoulder arthroplasty, and fracture sequelae. Increased use of primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has led to reports of associated problems unique to the procedure. The most common complications include neurologic injury, periprosthetic fracture, hematoma, infection, scapular notching, dislocation, mechanical baseplate failure, and acromial fracture...
July 2011: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Philip Mulieri, Page Dunning, Steven Klein, Derek Pupello, Mark Frankle
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the indications for, and outcomes of, reverse shoulder arthroplasty in patients with massive rotator cuff tears but without glenohumeral arthritis. METHODS: From December 1998 to December 2006, sixty-nine patients (seventy-two shoulders) were managed with reverse shoulder arthroplasty for the treatment of irreparable rotator cuff dysfunction without glenohumeral arthritis. The indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty were persistent shoulder pain and dysfunction despite a minimum of six months of nonoperative treatment, the presence of at least a two-tendon tear, and Hamada stage-1, 2, or 3 changes in a patient for whom a non-arthroplasty option did not exist...
November 3, 2010: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Ryan E Dobbs, Arlen D Hanssen, David G Lewallen, Mark W Pagnano
BACKGROUND: There is relatively little information about quadriceps tendon tears after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of this condition and the outcomes of patients who had a tear of the quadriceps tendon after a total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: From a cohort of 23,800 primary total knee arthroplasties, we identified twenty-four patients who had a rupture of the quadriceps tendon postoperatively. Ten additional patients had the total knee arthroplasty done elsewhere and were referred for care after sustaining a tear of the quadriceps tendon...
January 2005: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
R C Wasielewski, L A Cooperstein, M P Kruger, H E Rubash
An anatomical and radiographic study was undertaken to determine the safest zones in the acetabulum for the transacetabular placement of screws during uncemented acetabular arthroplasty. To avoid injury to intrapelvic structures, which are not visible to the surgeon during placement of the screws, cadavera were studied to define the location of these structures with respect to fixed points of reference within the acetabulum. Four clinically useful acetabular quadrants were delineated. The quadrants are formed by drawing a line from the anterior superior iliac spine through the center of the acetabulum to the posterior fovea, forming acetabular halves...
April 1990: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
2015-08-21 15:04:53
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