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By Brooke Manor Endocrinology
Bryan R Haugen, Steven I Sherman
Advanced differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), defined by clinical characteristics including gross extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastases, radioiodine (RAI) resistance, and avidity for 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (positron emission tomography-positive), is found in approximately 10-20% of patients with DTC. Standard therapy (surgery, RAI, TSH suppression with levothyroxine) is ineffective for many of these patients, as is standard chemotherapy. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to DTC and the transformation to advanced DTC has rapidly evolved over the past 15-20 years...
June 2013: Endocrine Reviews
Bernadette Biondi, Leonard Wartofsky
Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities...
June 2014: Endocrine Reviews
Einav Yehuda-Shnaidman, Bella Kalderon, Jacob Bar-Tana
Thyroid hormone (TH) has long been recognized as a major modulator of metabolic efficiency, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. TH effects in regulating metabolic efficiency are transduced by controlling the coupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the cycling of extramitochondrial substrate/futile cycles. However, despite our present understanding of the genomic and nongenomic modes of action of TH, its control of mitochondrial coupling still remains elusive. This review summarizes historical and up-to-date findings concerned with TH regulation of metabolic energetics, while integrating its genomic and mitochondrial activities...
February 2014: Endocrine Reviews
Na Kyung Lee, Hideaki Sowa, Eiichi Hinoi, Mathieu Ferron, Jong Deok Ahn, Cyrille Confavreux, Romain Dacquin, Patrick J Mee, Marc D McKee, Dae Young Jung, Zhiyou Zhang, Jason K Kim, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Patricia Ducy, Gerard Karsenty
The regulation of bone remodeling by an adipocyte-derived hormone implies that bone may exert a feedback control of energy homeostasis. To test this hypothesis we looked for genes expressed in osteoblasts, encoding signaling molecules and affecting energy metabolism. We show here that mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase OST-PTP are hypoglycemic and are protected from obesity and glucose intolerance because of an increase in beta-cell proliferation, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, mice lacking the osteoblast-secreted molecule osteocalcin display decreased beta-cell proliferation, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
August 10, 2007: Cell
Luigi Bartalena
CONTEXT: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is present in about 50% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. It may range from mild to moderately severe and (rarely) to sight-threatening. Whether antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine (RAI), or thyroidectomy should be the treatment of choice in the presence of overt and active GO is a matter of debate. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The major source of data acquisition included PubMed search strategies. Articles published in the last 30 yr were screened...
March 2011: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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