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Alcohol dependence

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8 papers 500 to 1000 followers
By Brian Still Physician
John H Krystal, Julie Staley, Graeme Mason, Ismene L Petrakis, Joan Kaufman, R Adron Harris, Joel Gelernter, Jaakko Lappalainen
CONTEXT: Alcohol facilitates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function, and GABA type A (GABA(A)) receptor-facilitating agents suppress alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Advances in molecular neuroscience, genetics, and neuroimaging provide new insights into the role of brain GABA systems in short- and long-term alcohol effects. OBJECTIVE: To review the role of brain GABA systems in alcohol response, alcohol dependence, alcoholism vulnerability, and alcoholism pharmacotherapy...
September 2006: Archives of General Psychiatry
Chase Matthew Carver, Doodipala Samba Reddy
RATIONALE: Neurosteroids are steroids synthesized within the brain with rapid effects on neuronal excitability. Allopregnanolone, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, and androstanediol are three widely explored prototype endogenous neurosteroids. They have very different targets and functions compared to conventional steroid hormones. Neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABA(A)) receptors are one of the prime molecular targets of neurosteroids. OBJECTIVE: This review provides a critical appraisal of recent advances in the pharmacology of endogenous neurosteroids that interact with GABA(A) receptors in the brain...
November 2013: Psychopharmacology
Johan Franck, Nitya Jayaram-Lindström
The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages...
August 2013: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Raye Z Litten, Megan L Ryan, Joanne B Fertig, Daniel E Falk, Bankole Johnson, Kelly E Dunn, Alan I Green, Helen M Pettinati, Domenic A Ciraulo, Ofra Sarid-Segal, Kyle Kampman, Mary F Brunette, Eric C Strain, Nassima A Tiouririne, Janet Ransom, Charles Scott, Robert Stout
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of varenicline (Chantix) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Varenicline is a partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist approved by the Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation. It has reduced drinking in animal studies and in small studies of humans who were both heavy drinkers and smokers. This is the first multisite clinical trial of varenicline in a population of smokers and nonsmokers with alcohol dependence. METHODS: Men and women (n = 200) meeting the criteria for alcohol dependence were recruited across 5 clinical sites...
July 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Riccardo Guglielmo, Giovanni Martinotti, Massimo Clerici, Luigi Janiri
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence represents a severe pathological disorder associated with a significant rate of morbidity and mortality. To date, limited pharmacological agents exist to treat this disorder, and there is a growing interest for new therapies. In this context, pregabalin represents a promising strategy. Pregabalin, like gabapentin, selectively binds to the α(2)δsubunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, inhibiting release of excessive levels of excitatory neurotransmitters...
November 2012: Advances in Therapy
Yann Le Strat
BACKGROUND: Levetiracetam exhibited 2 promising results in preclinical studies as well as in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans. Two open-label trials suggested that levetiracetam may be efficient in alcohol-related disorder. METHODS: The study by Fertig and colleagues (2012) examines the effects of levetiracetam using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design including 130 participants. Fertig and colleagues' study included alcohol-dependent participants drinking heavily...
August 2012: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Raymond F Anton, Hugh Myrick, Tara M Wright, Patricia K Latham, Alicia M Baros, L Randolph Waid, Patrick K Randall
OBJECTIVE: Naltrexone, an efficacious medication for alcohol dependence, does not work for everyone. Symptoms such as insomnia and mood instability that are most evident during early abstinence might respond better to a different pharmacotherapy. Gabapentin may reduce these symptoms and help prevent early relapse. This clinical trial evaluated whether the combination of naltrexone and gabapentin was better than naltrexone alone and/or placebo during the early drinking cessation phase (first 6 weeks), and if so, whether this effect persisted...
July 2011: American Journal of Psychiatry
Thomas Paparrigopoulos, Elias Tzavellas, Dimitris Karaiskos, Georgia Kourlaba, Ioannis Liappas
BACKGROUND: GABAergic anticonvulsants have been recommended for the treatment of alcohol dependence and the prevention of relapse. Several studies have demonstrated topiramate's efficacy in improving drinking behaviour and maintaining abstinence. The objective of the present open-label controlled study was to assess efficacy and tolerability of low-dose topiramate as adjunctive treatment in alcohol dependence during the immediate post-detoxification period and during a 16-week follow-up period after alcohol withdrawal...
March 14, 2011: BMC Psychiatry
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