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Emmanuel Adu-Gyamfi, Smita P Soni, Yi Xue, Michelle A Digman, Enrico Gratton, Robert V Stahelin
Ebola, a fatal virus in humans and non-human primates, has no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. The virus from the Filoviridae family causes hemorrhagic fever, which rapidly progresses and in some cases has a fatality rate near 90%. The Ebola genome encodes seven genes, the most abundantly expressed of which is viral protein 40 (VP40), the major Ebola matrix protein that regulates assembly and egress of the virus. It is well established that VP40 assembles on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane; however, the mechanistic details of plasma membrane association by VP40 are not well understood...
February 22, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tom C Hobman, Craig McCormick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2014: Current Opinion in Virology
Gopi S Mohan, Wenfang Li, Ling Ye, Richard W Compans, Chinglai Yang
In addition to its surface glycoprotein (GP(1,2)), Ebola virus (EBOV) directs the production of large quantities of a truncated glycoprotein isoform (sGP) that is secreted into the extracellular space. The generation of secreted antigens has been studied in several viruses and suggested as a mechanism of host immune evasion through absorption of antibodies and interference with antibody-mediated clearance. However such a role has not been conclusively determined for the Ebola virus sGP. In this study, we immunized mice with DNA constructs expressing GP(1,2) and/or sGP, and demonstrate that sGP can efficiently compete for anti-GP(12) antibodies, but only from mice that have been immunized by sGP...
2012: PLoS Pathogens
Nicholas D Weber, Martine Aubert, Chung H Dang, Daniel Stone, Keith R Jerome
Treatment for most persistent viral infections consists of palliative drug options rather than curative approaches. This is often because long-lasting viral DNA in infected cells is not affected by current antivirals, providing a source for viral persistence and reactivation. Targeting latent viral DNA itself could therefore provide a basis for novel curative strategies. DNA cleavage enzymes can be used to induce targeted mutagenesis of specific genes, including those of exogenous viruses. Although initial in vitro and even in vivo studies have been carried out using DNA cleavage enzymes targeting various viruses, many questions still remain concerning the feasibility of these strategies as they transition into preclinical research...
April 2014: Virology
Guillaume Morissette, Louis Flamand
Herpesviruses are members of a diverse family of viruses that colonize all vertebrates from fish to mammals. Although more than one hundred herpesviruses exist, all are nearly identical architecturally, with a genome consisting of a linear double-stranded DNA molecule (100 to 225 kbp) protected by an icosahedral capsid made up of 162 hollow-centered capsomeres, a tegument surrounding the nucleocapsid, and a viral envelope derived from host membranes. Upon infection, the linear viral DNA is delivered to the nucleus, where it circularizes to form the viral episome...
December 2010: Journal of Virology
Uri Mbonye, Jonathan Karn
Replication-competent latent HIV-1 proviruses that persist in the genomes of a very small subset of resting memory T cells in infected individuals under life-long antiretroviral therapy present a major barrier towards viral eradication. Multiple molecular mechanisms are required to repress the viral trans-activating factor Tat and disrupt the regulatory Tat feedback circuit leading to the establishment of the latent viral reservoir. In particular, latency is due to a combination of transcriptional silencing of proviruses via host epigenetic mechanisms and restrictions on the expression of P-TEFb, an essential co-factor for Tat...
April 2014: Virology
Boghuma Kabisen Titanji, Marlen Aasa-Chapman, Deenan Pillay, Clare Jolly
BACKGROUND: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) spreads by cell-free diffusion and by direct cell-to-cell transfer, the latter being a significantly more efficient mode of transmission. Recently it has been suggested that cell-to-cell spread may permit ongoing virus replication in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on studies performed using Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs). Protease Inhibitors (PIs) constitute an important component of ART; however whether this class of inhibitors can suppress cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 is unexplored...
December 24, 2013: Retrovirology
William A Rodríguez-Limas, Karthik Sekar, Keith E J Tyo
Vaccines based on virus-like particles have proved their success in human health. More than 25 years after the approval of the first vaccine based on this technology, the substantial efforts to expand the range of applications and target diseases are beginning to bear fruit. The incursion of high-throughput screening technologies, combined with new developments in protein engineering and chemical coupling, have accelerated the development of systems capable of producing macrostructures useful for vaccinology, gene delivery, immunotherapy and bionanotechnology...
December 2013: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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